Hx of Science and Tech MIDTERM

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Tatergirl1979
ID:
23747
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Hx of Science and Tech MIDTERM
Updated:
2010-06-15 23:44:57
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Hx Science Tech
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Hx of Science and Tech
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  1. Pre-history to 8000 BCE
    • *emergence of science and scientific knowledge
    • *anatomy
    • trepanning
    • reproductive anatomy and procedures
    • *zoology
    • violence on animals for food
    • knowledge of make-up of animals
    • *botany
    • eating plants
    • cycle of plants(seasons)
    • TECHNOLOGY
    • *stone based scrapers/knives
    • *bone needles
    • for sewing
    • can change clothing/migration
    • *spears/harpoons/javelins
    • *slings/atlatl/bows
    • *DELIBERATE USE OF FIRE
  2. 8000 to circa 3000 BCE
    • *Agriculture begins to emerge
    • allows people to settle
    • bred plants with larger seeds
    • knowing what/where/when to plant
    • *Ability to read stars for seasons led to ASTRONOMY
    • *** BEGAN IN MESOPOTAMIA ***
    • Modern day TIGRIS and EUPHRATES

    • ALL OF THIS LED TO:
    • ability to stay in one place
    • increase in population
    • free-time
    • DOMESTICATION
    • need for storage containers
  3. DOMESTICATION
    • animals chosen b/c they were slow and easily caught
    • bred for desired traits
  4. Storage Containers
    • clay leads to pottery and ceramics
    • *CERAMICS
    • prob began w/ baskets lined w/clay
    • heavier than bags or baskets
    • *FIRING
    • prob discovered accidentally
    • make clay waterproof
  5. by 4500 BCE
    • *Ceramics and Metallurgy were well known throughout the Ancient Near East
    • metals soon came to replace stone tools
    • *stone wheel developed, but only for pottery first. NOT first for travel.
    • *wheeled pottery becomes more desireable
  6. SUMER
    abt 6000 BCE
    • *Area between Tigris and Euphrates
    • *By 5500 lots of small settlements begin to appear
    • larger spaces between villages
    • *Settle along rivers, though those are unreliable
    • when rains stopped, people moved closer to rivers. DANGEROUS!!
  7. Conflicts
    • *led to CONFLICT MANAGERS
    • COMPROMISE:
    • *dispenses judgement
    • *creates laws
    • *invention of TAXATION
    • TAX COLLECTOR
    • RECORD KEEPING (writing)
    • WRITING HAPPENED B/C THE RAINS STOPPED
  8. Sumerian Writing
    • abt 5500 BCE
    • originally plyphic/pictographic
    • base ten math
    • *pictographs useful for nouns
    • difficult for verbs/whole concepts
    • *eventually developed into 350 different sounds
    • *ENORMOUSLY difficult to learn
  9. Writing
    • began as record (taxation) keeping and religious ritual records
    • religion influenced science
    • astronomy borne from astrology
    • led to chronology
    • choosing times to plant/harvest
  10. Egypt
    • *Nile floods predictably
    • *likely settled by people already familiar with settling
    • *brought agriculture
    • *using stars to tell time
    • *ceramics
    • potters wheel came later
    • *used boats
    • *SAME NEEDS AS MESOPOTAMIA
    • *NEEDED CONFLICT MANAGER
    • *Pharoah
    • TECHNOLOGY
    • bronze metallurgy
    • potters wheel
    • chemists
    • ceramics
    • LOTS OF ROCKS
    • ROCK BULIDINGS
    • PYRAMIDS
    • OBELISKS
    • papyrus
    • abundant
    • RELIGION
    • nicer gods than Sumerians
    • used potions to cure
    • skilled surgeons
  11. War
    • Sumerians invented organized warfare
    • Egyptians developed it independantly

    • Soldiers were/are expensive
    • cost prohibitive
    • simple bow
    • sickle sword
    • penetrating axe
  12. Iron
    • extensive use of Iron
    • appears among the Hittites around 1500 BCE

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