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sensitivity analysis
attempts to assess the impact of a change in the input data or parameters on the proposed solution (i.e., the result variable)

sensitivity analysis
analysis approach used to determine how the output is changing based on how I change the input

whatif analysis
assesses solutions based on changes in variables or assumptions (scenario analysis)

goal seeking analysis
an analysis approach that determines how the input is changing based on what I want the output to be

automatic & trialanderror
two types of sensitivity analyses

automatic sensitivity analysis
reports the range within which a certain input variable or parameter value can vary without having any significant impact on the proposed solution  usually limited to one change at a time, and only for certain variables, but is able to establish ranges and limits very fast

trialanderror sensitivity analysis
analysis used to determine the impact of changes in any variable or in several variables  changes are made in input data and the problem is solved again and repeated to find better and better solutions

whatif analysis & goal seeking
two approaches to trialanderror sensitivity analysis

whatif analysis
analysis that determines what will happen to the solution if an input variable, an assumption, or a parameter value is changed  is common in expert systems

goal seeking
calculates the values of the inputs necessary to achieve a desired level of an output  a backward solution approach

breakeven point
the value of the decision variables that generate zero profit

decision analysis
approach used for modeling decision situations that involve a finite and usually not too large number of alternatives  where the alternatives are listed in a table or a graph, with their forecasted contributions to the goal(s) and the probability of obtaining the contribution  can be evaluated to select the best alternative

decision tables or decision trees
singlegoal situations can be modeled with _____.

decision tables
organize information and knowledge in a systematic, tabular manner to prepare it for analysis  multiple criteria decision analysis with one goal in mind

optimistic approach
method for handling uncertainty that assumes that the best possible outcome of each alternative will occur and then selects the best of the best

pessimistic approach
method for handling uncertainty that assumes that the worst possible outcome for each alternative will occur and selects the best of these

expected value
in a decision table, computing _____ is done by multiplying the results (i.e., outcomes) by their respective probabilities and adding them.

decision tree
multiple criteria decision approach that shows the relationships of the problem graphically and can handle complex situations in a compact form (but can be combersome if there are many alternatitives)

multiple goals
a decision situation in which alternatives are evaluated with several, sometimes conflicting, goals

analytic hierarchy process (AHP)
modeling structure for representing multicriteria (multiple goals, multiple objectives) problems  with sets of criteria and alternatives (choices)  often assigning distributed weights to different ranked criterion

analytical (optimization) techniques
blind searching
heuristic searching
formal search approach methods used in the choice phase of problem solving

analytical search techniques
use mathematical formulas to derive an optimal solution directly or to predict a certain result  used mainly for solving structured problems

algorithms
a stepbystep search process for obtaining an optimal solution (or more than one)  with improvements made as needed until no further improvement is possible (ex: web searches)

blind search
consists of searches that are not guided, which include complete enumeration and incomplete or partial searches

complete enumeration
a type of blind search in which all the alternatives are considered and therefore an optimal solution is discovered

incomplete or partial search
a type of blind search which continues until a goodenough solution (or best among alternatives checked) is found, and is a form of suboptimization

blind
____ searches are not pratical for solving very large problems because too many solutions must be examined before an optimal solution is found.

heuristics
the informal judgmental knowledge of an application area that constitute the rules of good judgment in the field

heuristic programming
the process of using heuristics in problem solving

simulation
the appearance of reality  a technique for conducting experiments with a computer on a model of a management system  to assist in dealing with the complexity of reality

models
simulation
____ generally represent reality, whereas ____ typically imitates it

simulation
____ is normally used only when a problem is too complex to be treated using numerical optimization techniques.

