Psych 111 Chapter Two

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hchristensen
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237489
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Psych 111 Chapter Two
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2013-09-28 15:29:52
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Psych 111
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Questions from Psych 111 Chapter 2
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  1. What is the term for a systematic way of organizing and understanding observations?
    theory
  2. What is the term for a proposed relationship between two variables?
    hypothesis
  3. What is the term for anything which can be measured or described along a particular dimension?
    variable
  4. What is the term for a variable which can be measured across a continuum (e.g. weight, hours of sleep)?
    continuous variable
  5. What is the term for a variable with a fixed meaning or attribute (e.g. anxiety disorder, parental marital status)?
    categorical variable
  6. What is the term for labeling and describing the variables of interest?
    operationalizing definitions
  7. What are the five easy steps of research methods?
    • develop a theory based on observations
    • develop a hypothesis from the theory
    • design a research study
    • gather the data
    • analyze the data and report findings
  8. What is the term used to describe a study that measures what it's supposed to measure? (e.g. eating snickers bar during exam doesn't necessarily measure hunger/exam performance)
    validity
  9. What is the term used to describe a study that gets consistent results over time?
    reliability
  10. What type of research focuses on systematic observation and exploring changes in variables of interest?
    experimental method
  11. What variable is manipulated by the experimenter?
    independent variable
  12. What variable is measured to assess any change in response to the manipulation?
    dependent variable
  13. What is the term for random subjects that represent the population as a whole?
    subjects
  14. What is the term for skewed samples that give results which don't generalize?
    sampling bias
  15. What is the term for the group that receives the special treatment in the experiment?
    experimental group
  16. What is the term for the group that receives all the same treatment except the independent variable to assess its impact?
    control group
  17. What is the term for a variable (other than the independent variable) which can impact the results? (e.g. time of day, lighting)
    extraneous variable
  18. What is the term for keeping research procedures constant to assure confidence when comparing results?
    standardization
  19. What is the term that describes the fact that expectations/expectancies can impact subjective experiences?
    placebo effect
  20. What is the term that describes the fact that subjects may behave in ways they think are expected of them? They respond to subtle or unintentional cues from the experimenter
    demand characteristics
  21. What is the term that describes people's tendency to give answers which are "correct" or "appropriate" and not necessarily true?
    social desirability
  22. What is the term that describes the ability to reasonably apply the results to other similar populations?
    generalizability
  23. What is the term that describes consistency in answers reflective of a patterned response answer in a set?
    response set
  24. What is the term that describes the fact that research expectations may impact the interpretation of results?
    experimenter bias
  25. What is the term for a study that controls for subject bias by limiting their knowledge?
    single-blind study
  26. What is the term for a study that controls for subjects and experimenter bias with limited knowledge for both?
    double-blind study
  27. What is the term for an in-depth study of an individual or small group that provides systematic observations? There is limited generalizability and these are susceptible to researcher bias.
    case studies
  28. What is the term for observation that looks at behavior in a natural environment? Report observations, can describe but not explain behavior.
    naturalistic observation
  29. What method allows for a large sample size and is often based on questionnaires and interviews?
    survey method
  30. What kind of study explores the relationship between two variables using a numerical value?
    correlational study
  31. What is the term that describes the fact that two variables are correlated only because each is causally related to a third variable?
    third-variable correlation
  32. What is the term for when group scores are added and divided by the number of scores?
    mean
  33. What is the term for the score that falls exactly in the middle of the scores?
    median
  34. What is the term for the most frequently occurring score?
    mode
  35. What is the term for how much individual scores vary?
    standard deviation
  36. What are seven of the APA ethical guidelines for research?
    • informed consent
    • freedom from coercion
    • protection from harm
    • risk-benefit analysis
    • deception
    • debriefing
    • confidentiality

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