Microbiology Exam 1

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Microbiology Exam 1
2013-09-28 12:58:10

Vocabulary, tables
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  1. Define cilia.
    Threadlike appendages that extend from the surface of some protists that beat rhythmically to propel them. They are membrane bound cylinders with a complex internal array of microtubles usually in a 9 + 2 pattern. 
  2. Define cristae. 
    Infoldings of the inner mitochondrial membrane
  3. Define cytoskeleton.
    A network of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubles and other components in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that helps give them shape, functions during cell division, and helps move materials in the cytoplasm 
  4. Define endocytosis.
    The process in which a cell takes up solutes or particles by enclosing them in vesicles pinched off from its plasma membrane 
  5. Define endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
    A system of membranous tubles and flattened sacs (cisternae) in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells; rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) bears ribosomes on its surface; smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) lacks ribosomes
  6. Define flagellum.
    A thin threadlike appendage on many cells that is responsible for their motility
  7. Define Golgi apparatus. 
    A membranous eukaryotic organelle composed of flattened sacs (cisternae) that is involved in many processes including packaging and modifying materials for secretion
  8. Define lysosome.
    A spherical membranous eukaryotic organelle that contains hydrolytic enzymes and is responsible for the intracellular digestion of substances
  9. Define microfilaments (actin filaments).
    Protein filaments about 4 to 7 nm in diameter, that are present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and play a role in cell structure and motion
  10. Define microtubules.
    Small cylinders about 25 nm in diameter, made of tubulin proteins and present in the cytoplasm, cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells. They are involved in cell structure and movement
  11. Define mitochondrion.
    The eukaryotic organelle that is the site of cellular respiration. It provides most of a nonphotosynthetic cell's energy under oxic conditions
  12. Define nuclear envelope.
    The complex double membrane structure forming the outer boundary of the nucleus
  13. Define nucleolus.
    An organelle located within the nucleus and not bounded by a membrane; it is the location of ribosomal RNA synthesis and the assembly of ribosomal RNA subunits
  14. Define nucleus.
    The eukaryotic organelle enclosed by a double membrane that contains the cell's chromosomes
  15. Define organelle.
    A structure within or on a cell that performs specific functions and is related to the cell in a way that is similar to that of an organ to the body of a multicellular organism
  16. Define phagocytosis.
    The endocytotic process in which a cell encloses large particles in a membrane delimited phagocytic vacuole (phagosome) and engulfs them
  17. Define proteosome.
    A cylindrical complex found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that is responsible for the degradation of proteins
  18. Define secretory pathway.
    The process used by eukaryotic cells to synthesize proteins and lipids, followed by secretion or delivery to organelles or the plasma membrane; involves the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and secretory vesicles
  19. Define septa.
    Cross walls that divide microbial cells
  20. Define thylakoid.
    A flattened sac in the chloroplast stroma that contains photosynthetic pigments and the proteins and the other molecules that convert light energy into ATP