Psych 111 Chapter Three

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hchristensen
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237518
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Psych 111 Chapter Three
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2013-09-28 14:33:15
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Psych 111
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Questions from Psych 111 Chapter Three
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  1. What are the two parts of the nervous system?
    • Central Nervous System
    • Peripheral Nervous System
  2. What part of the nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord?
    Functions include receiving, processing, and storing information, sending out messages to muscles, glands, and internal organs
    Central Nervous System
  3. What part of the nervous system handles the input and output of the CNS?
    It connects the brain and spinal cord to other areas of the body (organs and muscles)
    Peripheral Nervous System
  4. What is the term for individual cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information?
    neurons
  5. What kind of neuron carries information to the brain from the skin, muscles, or organs?
    sensory or afferent neurons
  6. What kind of neuron carries the brain's output to muscles, glands, and organs?
    motor or efferent neurons
  7. What kind of neurons connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other (....)?
    interneurons
  8. What kind of neurons are activated by performing an action or by seeing another perform the same action?
    mirror neurons
  9. What is the term for what holds the neurons in place, nourishes and insulates the neurons? They are non-neuron cells that provide a supportive function.
    glial cells
  10. What is the term for what receives messages from other neurons and transmits these messages to the cell body?
    dendrites
  11. What part of the neuron keeps the neuron alive, contains substances for growth, and determines whether to fire?
    cell body/soma
  12. What part of the neuron transmits messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles. or glands?
    axons
  13. What is the fatty material that insulates the axon and helps the nerve impulse travel faster?
    myelin sheath
  14. What is the term for the gaps between the neurons - often between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another?
    synapse
  15. What is the term for a neuron at its stable negative charge when it is inactive?
    resting potential
  16. What is the term for when a nerve is stimulated, an electrical impulse occurs and move down the axon to the end of the axon's terminal tip?
    action potential
  17. What release neurotransmitters which then bind with a particular dendrite receptor site?
    synaptic vesicles
  18. What is the term for the minimum amount of time during which another action potential cannot begin?
    absolute refractory period
  19. What is the term for chemical substances which carry information across the synaptic gap to the next neuron?
    neurotransmitters
  20. What kind of PSP increases the likelihood of an action potential?
    excitatory
  21. What kind of PSP decreases the likelihood of an action potential?
    inhibitory
  22. What neurotransmitter is involved in sleep and wakefulness, mood, depression, eating, and aggression?
    serotonin
  23. What neurotransmitter regulates motor behavior, motivation, pleasure, and emotional arousal?
    dopamine
  24. What neurotransmitter is responsible for muscle action and control, memory, and attention?
    acetycholine
  25. What neurotransmitter is involved in mood, arousal, alertness and wakefulness, excite heart muscles, intestines, and urogenital tract?
    norepinephrine
  26. What neurotransmitter is an excitatory transmitter which is widely distributed and implicated in memory formation, information transmission in the brain?
    glutamate
  27. What neurotransmitter is inhibitory and low levels are linked with anxiety?
    GABA (gamma amino butyric acid)
  28. What are the brain's natural opiates that produce effects of reducing pain and promoting pleasure? They act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain.
    endorphins
  29. What are the two primary systems of the peripheral nervous system?
    • somatic nervous system
    • autonomic nervous system
  30. What part of the PNS includes sensory nerves that relay information from the skin and muscles to the CNS about pain, temperature, and informing muscles when to act? We have conscious control over this system.
    somatic nervous system
  31. What part of the PNS includes the fight or flight response, works automatically/involuntary, and takes messages to and from the body's internal organs monitoring breathing, heart rate, and digestion?
    autonomic nervous system
  32. What are the two part of the autonomic nervous system?
    • sympathetic nervous system
    • parasympathetic nervous system
  33. What part of the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the body for action, stops digestion, increases oxygen to the blood for muscle responses, increases heart rate, dilates pupils, dry mouth, and goosebumps?
    sympathetic nervous system
  34. What part of the autonomic nervous system slows actions down and conserves bodily resources?
    parasympathetic nervous system
  35. What way to learn about the brain involves damaging or removing a section of the brain and observing the effects?
    lesion method
  36. What way of learning about the brain involves detecting electrical activity of neurons and looks at brain waves across events?
    Electrode Method EEG
  37. What way of learning about the brain involves taking multiple x-rays of successive slices of the brain? It looks at brain structure but not function.
    CT scans
  38. What way of learning about the brain records biochemical changes in the brain as they occur by detecting radioactive material which has been injected or inhaled? It looks at brain function.
    PET scans
  39. What way of learning about the brain uses magnetic fields and radio frequencies which produce vibrations that are picked up by receivers? It provides a structural view of the brain.
    MRI
  40. What way of learning about the brain assesses changes in blood oxygen flow to areas of the brain? It allows you to look at both structure and function of the brain.
    fMRI
  41. What way of learning about the brain involves electrically stimulation deep in the brain which promotes particular sensations and emotions?
    electrical stimulation
  42. What are the three parts of the brain?
    • hindbrain
    • midbrain
    • forebrain
  43. What are the three parts of the hindbrain?
    • medulla
    • pons
    • cerebellum
  44. What part of the brain regulates automatic functioning, circulation, breathing, muscle tone, and reflexes? You can't survive if this part of the brain is destroyed.
    medulla
  45. What part of the brain regulates sleeping, waking, and dreaming?
    pons
  46. What part of the brain controls balance and coordination of movement, analyzes sensory information, and may play a role in remembering simple skills and problem solving?
    cerebellum
  47. What are the three parts of the midbrain?
    • reticular formation
    • tectum
    • tegmentum
  48. What part of the brain modulates muscles reflexes, pain perception, and is active in states of arousal and consciousness? Damage to this area may result in comas.
    reticular formation
  49. What part of the brain is involved in auditory and visual responses that help orient an organism in the environment?
    tectum
  50. What part of the brain controls some motor functions and regulates awareness and attention and some autonomic functions?
    tegmentum
  51. What part of the brain relays motor impulses out of the brain and directs incoming sensory messages to higher centers?
    thalamus
  52. What part of the brain controls hunger, thirst, emotion, sex and reproduction, body temperature, and the autonomic nervous system? (The 4 F's: 1. feeding 2. fighting 3. fleeing 4. mating)
    hypothalamus
  53. What part of the brain is a master gland governed by the hypothalamus that is involved in temperature regulation, thyroid activity, growth, testosterone, and estrogen production?
    pituitary gland
  54. What part of the brain is loosely interconnected structures involved in emotions? It doesn't have clear boundaries.
    limbic system
  55. What part of the brain evaluates sensory information, is linked to fear responses, and emotional events?
    amygdala
  56. What part of the brain is involved in formation and storage of new memories?
    hippocampus
  57. What part of the brain is subcortical structures that direct intentional movement?
    basil ganglia
  58. What structure of the basil ganglia is involved in the control of posture and movement?
    striatum
  59. What is the largest and most complex part of the brain and is divided into two hemispheres?
    cerebrum
  60. What is the band of fibers that connects the cerebrum called?
    corpus callosum
  61. What hemisphere is responsible for visual and spatial ability, map reading, art and music appreciation, facial recognition, and analysis of nonverbal sounds?
    right brain
  62. What hemisphere is responsible for production and comprehension of speech, and reading and mathematical ability?
    left brain
  63. What lobe contains the visual cortex and processes visual stimuli?
    occipital lobe
  64. What lobe is the somatosensory cortex and receives information about pressure, pain, touch, and temperature?
    parietal lobe
  65. What lobe is involved in memory, perception, emotion, and contains the auditory cortex?
    temporal lobe
  66. What area of the brain is involved in language comprehension?
    Wernicke's area
  67. What lobe contains the motor cortex and is responsible for making plans, initiative, creativity, abstract thinking, memory, and judgment?
    frontal lobe
  68. What area of the brain is involved in speech production?
    Broca's area
  69. What is a treatment for severe seizure disorders in which the corpus callosum is severed?
    split brain surgery
  70. What is the ability of the nervous system to alter its structure and connections called?
    brain plasticity
  71. What is the influence of genetic traits on behavior called?
    behavioral genetics
  72. What is the term for the hereditary material in the nuclei of all cells?
    chromosomes
  73. What is the term for the genetic make-up or structure of the organism?
    genotype
  74. What is the term for the observable or expressed characteristics of an organism?
    phenotype
  75. What is the term for when many traits are determined by a combination of gene pairs?
    polygenic inheritance
  76. What is it called when environmental factors interact with genetic factors to produce traits (e.g. height, intelligence)?
    multifactorial transmission

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