Psych 111 Chapter Four

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hchristensen
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237526
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Psych 111 Chapter Four
Updated:
2013-09-28 15:03:04
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Psych 111
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Questions from Psych 111 Chapter Four
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  1. What is the term for the stimulus detection process where our sense organs respond to and translate stimuli into nerve impulses sent to the brain?
    sensation
  2. What is the term for the active process of organizing stimulus input and giving it meaning?
    perception
  3. What is the term that describes how intense a stimulus needs to be in order for us to recognize its presence?
    stimulus detection
  4. What is the term for the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected at least 50% of the time?
    absolute threshold
  5. What is the term for the minimum change in a stimulus that can be detected?
    just noticeable difference
  6. What law states that the difference threshold is directly proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus to which the comparison is being made?
    • Weber's Law
    • backpack example
  7. What law states that larger and larger increases in physical energy are required to produce equal increases in perception?
    • Fechner's Law
    • light bulb example
  8. What is the term that describes how various factors influence our sensory judgment and often involves a process of decisions in addition to sensation?
    signal detection theory
  9. What term describes the fact that over time neurons decrease activity in response to a constant stimulus?
    sensory adaptation (habituation)
  10. What part of the eye is behind the cornea and adjusts to control the amount of light that enters the eye?
    pupil
  11. What part of the eye controls the size of the pupil?
    iris
  12. What part of the eye is a hole in the retina and is the blind spot of the eye?
    optic disk
  13. What kind of light sensitive receptor cells function best in dim light, are primarily black/white brightness receptors, and are more sensitive to light?
    rods
  14. What kind of light sensitive receptor cells function best in bright light and serve as color receptors?
    cones
  15. What part of the eye is where the optic nerves from each eye cross over and pass information to the opposite side of the brain?
    optic chiasm
  16. What is the term for what is commonly meant by color (influenced by length)?
    hue
  17. What is the term for the color's purity and describes how it is diluted with black or white?
    saturation
  18. What theory states that there are three types of color receptors in the retina and that individual cones are most sensitive to either red, blue, or green?
    trichromatic theory
  19. What theory states that each type of cone responds to two different wavelengths (red/green, blue/yellow, black/white)?
    color-opponent system
  20. What is the term for the number of sound waves in cycles per second?
    frequency
  21. What is the term for the quality of a tone from low to high and is the number of times particles oscillate per second?
    pitch
  22. What is the term for the height/depth of a wave, corresponds with loudness?
    amplitude
  23. What is the term for the wave purity or mixture of sound?
    complexity/timbre
  24. What part of the ear is a moveable membrane which vibrates in response to sound waves?
    ear drum
  25. What theory states that nerve impulses sent to the brain match the frequency of the sound waves?
    temporal code/frequency theory
  26. What theory states that different areas of the basilar membrane are sensitive to different frequencies?
    place code/place theory
  27. What is the term for chemical signals which are found in natural body scents in humans and other species?
    pheremones
  28. What are the three primary sensations?
    • pressure
    • temperature
    • pain
  29. What is the term for the body's way of giving feedback about our muscle and joint position and gives us a sense of coordinated movement?
    kinesthetics
  30. What part of the ear helps with balance and maintaining our equilibrium in space?
    vestibular system
  31. What is the term for mental representations or images for comparison?
    perceptual schemas/template
  32. What is the term for objects that appear to be relatively stable despite changes in the stimulation of sensory receptors?
    perceptual constancy
  33. What is the term for when objects do not appear to change in size when viewed from different distances?
    size constancy
  34. What is the term for failure to perceive objects that are not the focus of our attention?
    inattentional blindness
  35. What is the term for failure to perceive/detect changes in the details of a scene?
    change blindness
  36. What is the term that describes the fact that objects project images to different locations on the right and left retina which give a different view of the object? The closer an item gets the greater the difference between the images on the eyes.
    retinal disparity
  37. What is the term for how the retina receives information in two dimensions (length and width) and the brain translates into three dimensions?
    depth perception

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