Hist 110b #1-1.txt

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dragonbring
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237527
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Hist 110b #1-1.txt
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2013-09-28 14:41:41
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Walia Sargent history 110 csuf
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for the first test
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  1. Confucianism
    • The analects
    • Confucianist Writing that said that one person should give orders and another person should follow them
    • 5 great relationships -
    • In each someone gives orders and someone obeys
    • Husband and wife
    • Father and child
    • Ruler and subject
    • They had great government
    • Also because of Confucianism
    • People who did government jobs were great
    • Only the best people got government jobs
    • An employee of the Chinese government was a mandarin
    • In order to become a mandarin you have to
    • 1) do a first exam in your hometown
    • Fail rate was 99%
    • 2) take a second exam in your hometown
    • Fail rate was 99% again
    • 3)Take a third exam in the forbidden city
    • Fail rate was 90%
  2. Suleiman the magnificent
    • Sultan Suleiman "The Magnificent" Turkish ruler
    • R. 1520-1566
    • Very religious
    • Has a goal of conquering all of Europe
    • He takes over Hungary (1526)
    • Then Austria (1529)
    • He gave Henry VIII a crocodile
    • Said he was going to pick it up from him in a few years and he should keep it alive for him
    • Lots of the world built Turk bells
    • Special bells put in churches with a distinctive sound only to be rung when the Turkish army was coming
    • People were so scared people thought that the last days were coming (from the bible) (end of the world)
    • They really only got to Austria then they Began to fail
    • Turkish weaknesses
    • Refused to use a printing press
    • Literacy and new ideas did not spread in the Turkish empire
    • Because of religious ideas
    • Quran was supposed to be written by hand
    • Plus without it you couldn't mass produce a book against Islam
    • No mechanical clocks
    • 1500 mechanical clocks are being used in Europe
    • Because of religion again
    • People pray 5 times a day at specific times
    • Happens at a public call to prayer
    • Muezzin calls people to prayer
    • Was worried that you wouldn't need the Muezzin so they didn't have clocks
    • Closed - minded
    • They are not willing to borrow ideas from other cultures especially non Muslim cultures
    • They ignored and the things created in Europe during the scientific revolution
    • They didn't want the non Muslim inventions
    • They did borrow weapons and maps
    • Bought muskets, cannons, gunpowder
  3. Mansa musa
    • King Mansa Musa of the Mali people
    • 1324 he takes a pilgrimage to Mecca
    • (He is Muslim)
    • He decides to take his slaves with him
    • 15,000 slaves
    • Each of his slaves carries a gold walking stick that weighs 4 pounds
    • Takes 100 camels with sacks of gold on their back
    • He has to stop in Egypt at the capital (Cairo)
    • He gives away gold in Egypt to other people
    • He gives away so much that the price drops 12% for 10 years
    • Goes to Mecca
    • Returns to Egypt on the way back
    • Talks to religious scholars and convinces them to go to the capital of Mali with him
    • They open schools in Timbuktu
    • Mali ends in 1350ad
  4. Sunni ali
    • Sunni Ali
    • Rules 1464-1492
    • He is a tremendous conquer
    • He used his large navy to sail down the rivers and attack
    • Had a big army of 200,000 men
    • Conquered Timbuktu
    • Turned it into a slave market
    • Became Biggest slave market on earth
    • He was so successful people thought he had magic powers
    • He made the empire 500,000 square miles
  5. Petrarch
    • Petrarch (1304-1374)
    • He was a "love poet"
    • Wrote love poetry
    • He was fascinated by the writing of the Greeks
    • He was very wealthy and told people he would buy Greek manuscripts if they could find them
    • He would then hire someone else to translate them
    • He loves reading the Greek manuscripts
    • (1) famous phrase that he really liked
    • "Man is the measure of all things"
    • He and the Greeks were humanists (man is most important)
    • The church was not (god first)
    • He spreads these ideas around
    • He loved Plato
    • Plato stressed beauty
    • You should enjoy beauty
    • This is also contrary to church
    • Petrarch actually began the renaissance because of his spreading of these ideas
    • He is called the father of the renaissance
  6. Marsillo of ficino
    • Marsillio of ficino (1433-1499)
    • Also from Florence
    • Becomes a priest at a young age and also discovers the Greek writings
    • At 20 he becomes obsessed with Plato
    • He masters the Greek language so he could study it
    • He opens a school in 1468 called the platonic academy so you could learn Greek
    • This school further spreads Greek ideas and attitudes
    • He thought that people were almost equal to god
    • "Man is of an equal quality with the author of the heavens"
  7. pico Della Mirandola
    • Pico Della Mirandola (1463-1494)
    • Wrote a humanist book that was very important during the renaissance
    • Called Oration on the dignity of man
    • Claims to be an imaginary dialogue
    • Two people in the dialogue are god and man
    • God says many positive things about humans
    • That we could achieve anything we set our minds to, that we had no fixed task or end, we could occupy any place we wished
  8. Gutenberg
    • Printing press
    • Invented in 1436 (first useful one not the very first one)
    • Invented by Johannes Gutenberg
    • Uses moveable print
    • 1455 he mass produces the Gutenberg bible
    • Schoolbooks, magazines and novels all become more common
    • Increases literacy rate
    • By 1500 there are 100 cities in Western Europe that have a printing press with several million copy's of books printed
  9. Geocentric theory
    • Geocentric theory > earth is the center of the universe / solar system and everything goes around us (we do not move)
    • See note "Greek contributions to modern society" for a refresher
    • Developed by Aristotle
    • Catholic Church began to teach this in 1200ad
    • Ordinary people begin to believe this is true
    • Also because of an author named Dante
    • He lived in Italy and was a great writer
    • Named "supreme poet"
    • 1308-1321 he wrote 3 books
    • The divine comedy
    • Describes a Christian journey through the afterlife and placed them in Aristotle's universe (heaven is in the 33rd sphere, hell is in the 14 etc.)
  10. Copernicus
    • Heliocentric theory
    • Correct
    • Sun is the center of our solar system (earth is just a regular planet)
    • Earth goes around the sun every 365 days
    • Spins on its axis every 24 hours
    • Copernicus invented this idea in this time (1473-1543)
    • Didn't publicize this during this time
    • Published the book when he was dying so he wouldn't be punished for the ideas inside
    • Called "on the revolutions"
    • People hate this book
    • They don't agree and he is ignored
  11. Kepler
    • Johannes Kepler
    • Also a proponent of the heliocentric theory
    • Mathematician
    • Famous for the laws of planetary motion
    • Discovered by him in 1609
    • They are very complex
    • There are 3
    • One is "planets when they go around the sun move in ellipses)
    • Most important
  12. Paracelsus
    • Paracelsus (1493-1541)
    • From Switzerland
    • Medicine was in a bad condition when he entered the field
    • Because of Galen's theories
    • 4 fluids theory
    • Incorrect Anatomy
    • More info on note "Greek contributions to modern science"
    • He says that the reason you get ill because of disease
    • Invented the painkiller laudanum
    • Contains opium (which is related to heroin)
    • Came up with the cure for syphilis
    • Using mercury (which is poisonous)
  13. Vesalius
    • Vesalius
    • He is from Belgium and is a college professor in Italy (university of Padua)
    • He was very interested in anatomy
    • Theories of the time were wrong because of Galen
    • Vesalius says you have to do an autopsies on humans
    • He gets the bodies of convicted criminals that were hanged
    • He realizes that Galen is horribly wrong
    • Writes the book: "On the structure of the human body"
  14. Henry the navigator
    • Prince Henry the navigator
    • Prince who send his own personal ships to Africa with his own money
    • He tells his ships captains to give him detailed reports about the people they meet in Africa
    • He asked:
    • Do the areas have water?
    • Do the areas have gold?
    • What is the religion of the locals
    • He is how we know about Africa during this time
  15. dias
    • Bartolomeo Dias (1450-1500)
    • He decides to sail all the way to Asia
    • 1487 he sails all the way around Africa (he didn't know if there was one)
    • He named the bottom of Africa the "cape of storms"
    • It was later renamed "the cape of good hope"
    • Once he realizes that it can be done he goes back and talks to the king and tells him that it can be done
  16. De gama
    • Vasco da Gama (1469-1524)
    • 1497 he leaves Portugal with four ships and tries to go to Asia (in August)
    • They sail to the bottom of Africa (by December they reach and go around the cape of good hope)
    • They stop in Africa (after 4 months) to replenish their water supply
    • They stop in Mozambique
    • It is a Muslim area and they are not well viewed so they leave
    • They stop in Kenya
    • They go to a trading city called Malindi
    • Local population is also hostile
    • They stay here for a little while
    • He meets someone from India while here (in April of 1496)
    • They tell him to come to India with them and do business (they are also Muslim and Turkish)
    • They go to India
    • He is the first European to visit India
    • He doesn't have much to trade but he did trade for:
    • Pepper and cinnamon
    • 1499 he leaves to go home
    • Only 2 ships make it home
    • He doesn't know what happened to them
    • King of Portugal is excited for the economic opportunity
    • He does realize that parts of Africa are Muslim and will not do business with them and the Turks control the area
    • De Gama decides to do his second voyage in 1502
    • Takes 25 ships that are well armed with cannons and sailors
    • They go to India and begins sinking Turkish ships
    • He goes to Cochin and buys silk and gold
    • 1503 he heads home
    • Other sailors go to the Indian Ocean in massive numbers to drive away the Turks
    • 1509 a sea battle is fought off the coast of India
    • Battle of Diu
    • Portuguese vs Turks
    • Portuguese basically sink the entire Turkish army
    • They leave the Indian Ocean for good
    • The Portuguese become the masters of the Indian Ocean
  17. Magellan
    • Ferdinand Magellan
    • Was Portuguese but worked for Spain
    • First man to circumnavigate the globe
    • He sails west with 5 ships and 270 men in the summer of 1519
    • Lands in South America then travel south mapping the coast as he goes trying to go around the tip of South Africa
    • In November of 1520 the realize that they have gone around the tip (this area is named the straights of Magellan)
    • He names the new ocean (Pacific Ocean)
    • In march of 1521 they come to a bunch of island s which they named the Philippines
    • Magellan was killed here by a number of locals
    • His crew keep going and reach the Indian Ocean
    • They go around the bottom of Africa and return to Spain
    • They return with 1 ship and 17 men
    • They are starving and most have scurvy
  18. Columbus
    • Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
    • He was Italian from Genoa
    • Was a religious young man
    • He was interested in recapturing Jerusalem
    • When he was young the Turks had it
    • He wanted to sail into the Atlantic (instead of the Indian Ocean) so he could get into the holy land faster and attack the Turks from behind
    • He thought that once he did this the second coming of Christ And the end of the world would happen
    • 1484 John II the king of Portugal hires Columbus to sail west
    • He gets fired
    • 1488 John figures out you can go around the cape of good hope
    • Because of Dias
    • He goes around to other countries but they keep turning him down
    • 1492 the Spanish monarchy (Ferdinand and Isabella) say they will fund his journey west
    • In the summer (August he arrives) he goes to the Canary Islands to get ready for his trip
    • He was given 3 ships with 30 men per ship
    • He came to the islands to train his men and stock the ships
    • They begin sailing on sept 6 1492
    • He is on the Santa Maria
    • They realize that it's going to take a lot longer than they think
    • Crew almost mutinies
    • The water is going bad
    • In October they begin to see birds and pieces of driftwood
    • They are getting near land
    • October 12 a bunch of guys on The Pinta (another ship) see land
    • It's the Bahamas
    • He thought it may be India or china (Asia)
    • They stay here for a while then goes to Cuba for about a month
    • He claims the island for Spain
    • Then he goes to Hispaniola or Haiti/Dominican republic in modern language
    • Returns to Spain in 1493 to tell the monarchy that he discovered Asia
  19. Cortez
    • 1519 Hernan Cortez lands in Mexico
    • With 600 men and about 40 horses
    • They call themselves conquistadores
    • They have firearms, cannons, horses, crossbows, attack dogs
    • These give them an advantage over Mexico
    • He is incredibly religious (he went to mass every day)
    • November of 1519 they land in Mexico and go straight to Tenochtitlan
    • Aztec emperor is Montezuma (at the time)
    • They ask for an audience with the emperor
    • A meeting is arranged
    • Montezuma is taken hostage
    • He makes Montezuma issue orders to the Aztecs
    • Eventually the Aztecs realize what is going on
    • Aztecs decide to kill the Spanish
    • Aztecs attack and the 600 Spanish try to break out of the city
    • 1/3 are captured (who are sacrificed)
    • 2/3 do escape
    • Cortez escapes
    • Cortez decides to find allies
    • He goes to the other people who hate the Aztecs and form an alliance
    • Summer of 1521 Cortez marches on Mexico City with his army of allies and his army
    • They are unopposed and take over
  20. Pizarro
    • Francisco Pizarro
    • He was in panama and heard there was a mighty empire nearby (incas)
    • He goes with 180 men and 27 horses to meet them
    • In 1532 toward the end of the year they are near the capital city
    • He asks for a meeting with Atahualpa
    • They decide to meet in a giant plaza
    • A marketplace made of stone
    • It is deserted
    • Pizarro arrives early and hides his men all around the plaza with their weapons
    • Getting ready for an ambush
    • Atahualpa enters
    • Pizarro tells him that he is no longer the ruler
    • The priest with Pizarro hands Atahualpa the bible
    • He throws it on the ground
    • Spanish begin the ambush
    • Hundreds of Inca die and Atahualpa is wounded and is a prisoner
    • They go to Cuzco
    • All the gold is there
    • The Spanish begin to cease all the gold
    • By 1500 the Spanish empire in the "new world" spanned from California to Florida all the way to Argentina
  21. Atahualpa
    • Incas
    • They lived in the Andes mountains (10-12k feet above sea level)
    • Included Peru (home base) Ecuador and Bolivia
    • 750,000 square miles
    • Capital was Cuzco
    • Incredible road builders
    • First people to harvest potatoes
    • First people to use cocaine
    • They have a lot of gold
    • Population of about 7million people
    • Inca emperor is Atahualpa
    • Francisco Pizarro
    • He was in panama and heard there was a mighty empire nearby (incas)
    • He goes with 180 men and 27 horses to meet them
    • In 1532 toward the end of the year they are near the capital city
    • He asks for a meeting with Atahualpa
    • They decide to meet in a giant plaza
    • A marketplace made of stone
    • It is deserted
    • Pizarro arrives early and hides his men all around the plaza with their weapons
    • Getting ready for an ambush
    • Atahualpa enters
    • Pizarro tells him that he is no longer the ruler
    • The priest with Pizarro hands Atahualpa the bible
    • He throws it on the ground
    • Spanish begin the ambush
    • Hundreds of Inca die and Atahualpa is wounded and is a prisoner
    • They go to Cuzco
    • All the gold is there
    • The Spanish begin to cease all the gold
  22. Columbian exchange
    • Colombian exchange
    • Certain things go from the Americas to Europe or the other way
    • Old world > new
    • Horses
    • Pigs
    • Sheep
    • Goats
    • Alcohol
    • New world > old
    • Tomatoes
    • Potatoes
    • Turkeys
    • Cocoa
    • Pumpkins
    • Tobacco
  23. Indulgences
    • Purgatory is a place where you go before heaven
    • It's a temporary hell in order to wash away remaining sins
    • Could reduce your time in purgatory by buying indulgences
    • Certificate that you buy that takes time off of your time in purgatory
    • Could buy indulgences for dead people
  24. Eramus
    • Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1546)
    • He is a Christian humanist called "the prince of humanists"
    • Was once a monk and became a teacher
    • Makes fun of the church in a nice way (teasing)
    • Writes a book "in praise of folly"
    • Makes fun of some of the practices
    • Greedy priests
    • People who love relics
    • People who are obsessed with indulgences
    • He doesn't really change much but he draws attention to problems
  25. Luther
    • Martin Luther (1483-1546)
    • He is German
    • He is raised catholic and is religious as a young man
    • When he was 20 he encountered the Virgin Mary
    • He decided to become a monk
    • He does everything right but he keeps thinking he is going to hell
    • He gets angry with god for making heaven so hard to get into
    • In 1507 he is reading the bible book " letter to the Romans"
    • He comes across a passage
    • Basically says that the righteous man shall live by faith
    • He begins to think that there is a new way to go to heaven
    • You can be guaranteed a place in heaven if you have faith in the following statement: "Jesus Christ died on the cross for our sins"
    • This is called "justification by faith"
    • He becomes very controversial and he makes his own church
    • If you follow him you are a Lutheran
    • In 1517 he officially publishes his believes
    • Called "95 thesis"
    • He explains justification by faith
    • Denounces purgatory, indulgences, and relics
    • In 1520 he is excommunicated from the Catholic Church
    • But he's already left
    • People all over Europe like Luther's ideas
    • He has ministers instead of priests
    • They can get married and have kids
    • (Luther thought celibacy was useless)
    • This is popular with people as well
  26. Calvin
    • John Calvin (1509-1564)
    • If you follow his ideas you are a Calvinist
    • He left the Catholic Church as a young man
    • French but lived in Switzerland
    • When studying the bible he decided that god controls every little event
    • Absolute sovereignty or predestination
    • Thought there were two types of people
    • Elect - people who go to heaven
    • Damned - people who go to hell
    • He wrote a book justifying his beliefs
    • "The institutes of Christian religion"
    • It's a defense of predestination
    • Was written many times (very different versions exist)
    • He insults his opponents and has no sense of humor
    • Most famous Calvinists are the Puritans
  27. Edict of nantes
    • 1598 edict of Nantes
    • Dealing with Huguenots in France
    • Says that in areas where Huguenots are the majority they may practice their religion openly and may open new churches
    • Also contains another subsection that affects the entire country
    • It deals with schools, universities, and hospitals
    • Says you cannot deny a (qualified) Huguenot to a school, university,or hospital
  28. St bartholomew's day massacre
    • St Bartholomew's day massacre
    • In August of 1572
    • There was a wedding
    • It's a Huguenot wedding (in Paris)
    • The prominent religion in Paris is Catholicism
    • The top Huguenot attends (Admiral coligny)
    • A mob attacks the hotel where Coligny is staying
    • They kill all the Huguenots
    • All around the country Catholic mobs kill Huguenots
    • 3,000 killed in the city of Paris alone
    • The bodies were thrown in the Seine River
    • They chop off the admirals head and sent it to the pope
    • He was quite happy to get it (he didn't like Huguenots) and he held a feast
  29. Louis XIV
    • King Louis XIV (1643-1715)
    • "Sun king"
    • First great king of France
    • He realizes that being a king is partially about image
    • Built an amazing palace (palace of Versailles)
    • 13 miles outside of Paris
    • 2,300 rooms in the palace
    • 5,000 servants
    • Everyone who matters would visit
    • The hall of mirrors (opening room you must go through)
    • Has 357 mirrors that bend and distort light
    • Makes you huge
    • He has huge banquets
    • He holds hunts and kills huge amounts of animals (deer and boar)
    • He holds masquerades
    • Holds plays
    • He discovers the "rules for monarchy"
    • Centralization
    • Making yourself the only authority in a country
    • He weakens the individual governors then got rid of them and replaced them with people loyal to him (intendants)
    • Taxation without consent
    • Before him a king had to have permission to collect taxes
    • He disagrees and he takes taxes no matter what
    • He creates the salt tax (people used for curing meat)
    • The head tax
    • Tax on anyone who has a head (anyone alive)
    • Intendants are the ones who collect taxes
    • Average Frenchman is paying 3X the taxes than the average Englishman
    • Large standing army
    • Louie creates a huge army for the time (200,000 men)
    • Suppression of issues and collecting tax money
    • Patronage
    • When you do a favor and expect a favor in return
    • He would pay off people's debt, make people part of the nobility, gives people jobs, find husbands for daughters
    • Expects loyalty in return
    • This begins to spread
  30. Charles I
    • Charles I (1625-1649)
    • Believes in absolute monarchy and believes he is a god
    • He begins to break the common law
    • 1627-8 he creates the forced loan
    • He goes to wealthy people and takes their money
    • If you don't he has you imprisoned without trial
    • Parliament tells him to stop and he says I don't care
    • Quartering soldiers without permission
    • 1629 Charles closes parliament and plans on ruling without them for as long as possible
    • Personal rule of Charles I
    • This lasts for 11 years
    • During this time he tries to turn himself into an absolute monarch
    • Centralization - he fires the heads of each county (called the justices of the peace) and replaces them with his own people
    • Taxation without consent - raises and begins strange taxes on any excuse (most famous is ship money or money to build ships to protect England from pirates but he didn't use it for that purpose)
    • Patronage - begins performing these acts. He sells monopolies and titles (duke or lord)
    • He doesn't have a big standing army - in 1637 a lot of people go on a tax strike (refuse to pay taxes) and he wasn't able to get the money
    • In 1640 he realizes he doesn't have any money
    • Decides to recall parliament in 1640 and asks for money (they hate him) and they don't grant him any money
    • 1642 parliament and king are fighting causing civil war to begin
    • By 1648 war has ended and parliament has won
    • Charles is a prisoner
    • They put Charles on public trial for treason for taking away their liberty
    • He is found guilty and is killed
    • 1649 England becomes a republic
  31. James II
    • Charles brother
    • He is very unpopular
    • He is an open catholic an wants England to be catholic
    • He believed in absolute monarchy
    • First thing he does is closed parliament
    • He followed the sun kings steps for an absolute monarch
    • Centralized power by getting rid of old justices of the peace and putting his own men in (they were loyal and catholic)
    • He created a standing army
    • 50,000 men and every officer was catholic
    • Gave people jobs at universities and officer ships in the army as patronage
    • 1688 his wife is announced to be pregnant‣
    • People don't like this because the son would be king •
    • and they don't like James
    • People begin to plot a revolution•
    • During the summer 7 prominent Englishman go to ◦
    • holland (Protestant country and are Calvinist) to
    • meet the king (named William of Orange)
    • They ask William to help them and ask Him to ◦
    • invade England and get rid of James.
    • If he succeeded they would make William king‣
    • In November William marches on London‣
    • James army is not loyal and runs away•
    • Williams army grows because of Englishman •
    • joining him
    • James runs to France‣
    • Louis XIV (sun king) is waiting for him (they •
    • are good friends)
    • This is known as the glorious revolution (because now one ◦
    • died)
    • They become a bit of a power couple
  32. William of Orange
    • During the summer 7 prominent Englishman go to ◦
    • holland (Protestant country and are Calvinist) to
    • meet the king (named William of Orange)
    • They ask William to help them and ask Him to ◦
    • invade England and get rid of James.
    • If he succeeded they would make William king‣
    • In November William marches on London‣
    • James army is not loyal and runs away•
    • Williams army grows because of Englishman •
    • joining him
    • James runs to France‣
    • Louis XIV (sun king) is waiting for him (they •
    • are good friends)
    • This is known as the glorious revolution (because now one ◦
    • died)
    • They become a bit of a power couple
    • They are both Protestant and believe in limited monarchy‣
    • They had to guarantee the English certain rights (they had to sign ‣
    • a document)
    • "English bill of rights"•
    • No imprisonment without trial◦
    • Right to bear arms◦
    • No cruel and unusual punishment◦
    • No taxation without parliaments approval◦
    • No standing army
  33. John Locke
    • 1690 a book was written by John Locke◦
    • "Two treatises of government"‣
    • He said that the glorious revolution said a few things‣
    • There is a contract between people and their king•
    • When the king breaks the contract you may rebel ◦
    • You can rebel when a king wants to take your life, liberty, ◦
    • or property away
  34. Galileo
    • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)‣
    • He is from Italy and became a professor of physics and the university •
    • of pisa
    • He believes the heliocentric theory is correct•
    • 1609 he invents the telescope and he looks into the sky ◦
    • He discovered something that disproves the geocentric theory◦
    • He sees Jupiter and discovers 4 moons that go around Jupiter ‣
    • and not the earth
    • Realizes that there are an infinite number of stars (an infinite ‣
    • area cannot have a center)
    • He discovers that the stars and planets are not smooth which ‣
    • disproves another part of the geocentric theory
    • He decides to write a book◦
    • Called "starry messenger" it was published in 1610‣
    • He immediately gets into trouble with the church‣
    • Some of his problems were caused by himself•
    • After he published his book he told people you can be a ‣
    • good catholic and believe in the heliocentric theory
    • Quoted the bible to prove the heliocentric theory ‣
    • Since he wasn't in the priest he got in trouble for talking ◦
    • about religion
    • Church tells him they will talk to him and listen to his ideas ◦
    • if he stops teaching his ideas for awhile so they can figure it
    • out.
    • He stops for a few years but then in 1632 he begins ‣
    • advocating it again
    • He writes a new book called "a dialogue"‣
    • He gives all the evidence for the heliocentric theory •
    • in this book
    • He insults anyone who believes in the geocentric •
    • theory (the character who believes in the geocentric
    • theory was named Simplicio which means idiot)
    • He is put under house arrest•
    • He is put on trial for heresy•
    • They will let him go if he recants his views
    • Because of gallelo religion begins to look bad and science begins to •
    • look good
  35. Newton
    • Isaac Newton (1642-1727)•
    • Englishman ◦
    • At the age of 26 he became a professor of math at Cambridge◦
    • As a young man he decided to answer 2 questions◦
    • 1) why is is that everything falls to the earth•
    • 2)why is it that when a planet goes around the sun the planet returns •
    • to the same place
    • Answer to both is gravity‣
    • Took a lot of math to prove this‣
    • He figured out that he needed a new form of math •
    • He invented calculus◦
    • Wrote a book called "principia Mathematica" in 1687◦
    • Talks about calculus and gravity‣
    • Gravity is based on the inverse square law‣
    • When d = distance. G = 1/(d^2)•
    • He becomes the first scientific superstar ◦
    • By 1705 he is Sir Isaac Newton
  36. Rosseau
    • From Switzerland and moved to France at 37 years of age•
    • He said that if you do something wrong it's not your fault you can •
    • blame it on society specifically your parents
    • He did some stuff that was kinda bad and he didn't want it to be his ◦
    • fault
    • Wrote a book called "the social contract"•
    • Says there is a way to have a better society where everyone is equal◦
    • You surrender your rights to the government ‣
    • Then you would obey the general will‣
    • Basically the will of the people (the government)
  37. Voltaire
    • Playwright by trade•
    • Was a prolific writer he wrote 90 volumes of letters •
    • Didn't like religion but he did believe in god •
    • He hates the Catholic Church ◦
    • He crated the myth of the dark ages‣
    • As he got older his hatred got stronger‣
    • He is an elitist •
    • Common people are idiots because they like the church and the ◦
    • king

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