AP midterm

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AP midterm
2013-09-28 16:16:34

After this, no more chemistry. Please.
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  1. The study of how the body works or functions
  2. the proccess of cutting up or examination of the structure of the body
  3. the levels of organization, from least to most complex
    • chemical
    • cellular
    • tissue
    • organ
    • organ system
    • organism
  4. types of tissue
    • epithelium
    • connective tissue
    • muscle tissue
    • nervous tissue
  5. Organ systems
    • integumentary
    • muscular
    • skeletal
    • nervous
    • endocrine
    • cardiovascular
    • lymphatic
    • respiratory
    • digestive
    • urinary
    • reproductive
  6. the sum of all chemical proccesses occuring in the body
  7. the ability to detect and respond to internal and external stimuli
  8. the proccess whereby cells change from unspecialized cells to specialized with a specific function
  9. characteristics of living things
    • metabolism
    • responsiveness
    • movement
    • growth
    • differentiation
    • reproduction
  10. outer cells that eventually form the epidermis and nervouse tissue
  11. middle cells that eventually form muscle, cconnective tissue
  12. inner cells which eventually form linings of digestive tract
  13. keeps the internal environment of the body within certain physiological limits
  14. any stimulus which disturbs homeostasis
  15. response reverses original stimulus
    negative feedback
  16. response enhances original stimulus
    positive feedback
  17. an abnormality of function
  18. illness characterized by specific symptoms and signs
  19. subjective changes in body functions that are unobserveable
  20. changes that can be observed and measured
  21. dilute, watery solutions containing dissolved chemiclals in or outside the cell
    body fluids
  22. fluid in which substances dissolve
  23. substance disolved in the solvent
  24. anything that occupies space and has mass
  25. the amount of matter in an object
  26. depression in the 3 dimensional enzyme shaped for a specific substrate
    active site
  27. substrate fitting in the active site is referred to as
    induced fit
  28. study of the function of the cell
    cell physiology
  29. outermost membrane of the cell
    cellular membrane
  30. cytosol + organelles
  31. cell membrane is arranged in a
    fluid mosaic arrangement
  32. cell membranes are composed of
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • carbohydrates
  33. membrane lipids
    • phospholipids
    • glycolipids
    • cholesteral
  34. proteins embedded in the membrane that may span both lipid layers
    integral proteins. most are glycoproteins
  35. not embedded in the bilayer but found on the inner or outer surfaces of the membrane, attached to integral proteins
    peripheral proteins
  36. membrane protein functions
    • channels
    • transporters/carriers
    • receptors
    • enzymes
    • linker
    • cell identity marker
  37. substances move through the membrane with the help of a transporter protein
    mediated transport
  38. substances move through the membrane without any help
    nonmediated transport
  39. when a solute binds to a specific transporter on one side of the membrane and is released on the other side
    facilitated diffusion
  40. moves solutes against the concentration gradient, requires energy
    active transport
  41. what percent water is cytosol
  42. the medium in whichc many chemical reactions take place in a cell
  43. cellular organelles
    • cytoskeleton
    • filaments (micro, intermediate, microtubules)
    • cillia and flagella
    • centrosomes
    • ribosomes
    • endoplasmic reticulum (rough and smooth)
    • golgi complex
    • lysosomes
    • peroxisomes
    • proteasomes
    • mitochondria
    • nucleus
  44. cytoskeleton
    network of protein fibres running through the cytoplasm, gives the cell it's shape
  45. microtubules
    make up a monorail system for movement of organelles
  46. centrioles
    serve as the center for organizing microtubules to form mitotic spindle used in cell division
  47. ribosomes
    most numerous organelleread mRNA to synthesise proteins
  48. Rough enndoplasmic reticulum
    • covered in ribosomes
    • involved in synthesis of secretory proteins and membrane proteins
  49. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    • possesses many enzymes
    • involved in proccesses like detox
  50. golgi complex
    acts as the recieving, packaging, distribution center for proteins and lipids destined for the membrane, lysosomes or secrtory vesicles
  51. peroxizomes
    • in the liver
    • oxidises fatty acids and amino acids
  52. proteasomes
    home of protease which breaks down proteins
  53. mitochondria
    site of aerobic cellular respiraton (how cells make ATP)
  54. Copying DNA nucleotide sequence into RNA
  55. reading mRNA to make proteins