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Why are some animals healthy and others not?
- -how we value them
- -genetic predisposition
***THE 3 BIG CATEGORIES OF HEALTH DETERMINANTS*****
- PHYSICAL ENVIRO- shelter, stable ecosystem, security, sustainable and secure food and water
- SOCIAL ENVIRO-- animal social factors: cohabitation, competition, hierarchies; --human social factors: attitudes towards animals, policies and capacities,,, affected by income, education, ethics, priorities, perspectives
- BIOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL DETERMINANTS: genetic factors, physiological function, anatomic integrity (can n be affected by disease and more)
Describe the determinants of health
- -"determinants of health:" at every stage of life, health is determined by complex interactions between social and economic factors, the physical enviro and indiv behavior
- -these factors do not exist in isolation from each other- = the combined influence of the determinants of health that determine health status
What are some circumstances and environmental that determine whether an animal is healthy or not
- where they live
- state of their environment
- ability of owners to care for them (income 7 education)
- access to veterinary care
- physiological and anatomical functioning
What differentiates health promotion and protection from clinical medicine?
- health promotion is fundamentally concerned with action and advocacy to address the full range of potentially modifiable determinants of health
- -not only those related to the actions or attributes of individuals (like clinical medicine)
- -health Promo also look at the underlying drivers and forces working at a population, community, enviro and systems level
What are some determinants of animal health?
- ecosystem change
- animal-human interactions
- pathogens/ parasites /contaminants
- socio-economic conditions
What are some global drivers of animal health?
- advances in science and technology
- climate change
- population change
Why was the cohen commission called on?
Low sockeye salmon returns in 2009
What did the cohen commission state?
Evaluate the potential impacts of public salmon enhancement projects and determine their role in the 2009 run failure as well as the long-term decline in fraser sockeye productivity over the past 20 years
What did the Judge of the cohen commission want to show?
show less than a minimal risk of serious harm to the health of migrating fraser river sockeye salmon (by 2020)
What are the 3 main obstacles of the Cohen commission?
- No definition of health
- No known acceptable level of hazards (ex disease, pathogens, pollutants) in the population
- No data on how these hazards affect fish outside of a lab
***What is population health?
- an approach to health that aims to improve the health of the entire population and to reduce health inequities among population groups
- unifying force for the entire spectrum of health interventions-from prevention and promotion to health protection, diagnosis, treatment and care-- and integrate and balances action between them
The indicators of healthy populations are similar to ___________________?
- population ecology measures:
- -population characteristics (pop #, age distribution, sex ratio, spatial distribution)
- -population processes (pop growth, change in age distribution, mortality)
What does population health focus on?
- the interrelated conditions and factors that influence the health of populations over the life course (*time)
- identifies systematic variations in their patterns of occurrence
- applies the resulting knowledge to develop and implement policies and actions to improve the health and well-being of those populations
Where does population health happen?
- Action is directed at the health of an entire population, or sub-population, rather than individuals
- it focuses on things at the start of causal chaing (the determinants of health; root causes)The outcomes extend beyond improved population health outcomes to include a sustainable and integrated systems
****What are the 8 key things to focus on for population health?
- address the determinants of health and their interactions
- base decisions on evidence
- increase upstream investments
- apply multiple interventions and strategies
- collaborate across sectors and levels
- employ mechanisms for public involvement
- demonstrate accountability for health outcomes
- focus on the health of population
In general health:
- has no single measure
- needs to reflect the distribution of health
- -condition specific outcomes
- -not just a single average
- captures outcomes and determinants
- captures perceptions and expectations
- allows trends to be monitored
the sooner you act the bigger effects you get
If you are going to argue that health is the result of multiple interactions the...
you have to apply multiple interacting determinantsyou have to apply multiple interacting determinants
What are some of the effects of integrated actions?
- Health for all --> eliminate health disparities--> increase quality and years of healthy life
- promote healthy communities--> prevent and reduce diseases and disorders--> promote healthy behavior
- *which altogether: Improves systems for personal and public health
Explain how health has multiple affects and is a cumulative outcome using the sockeye salmon
- Salmon are affected by:
- climate change
- desertification and land degradation
- freshwater decline
- biodiversity loss and ecosystem function
- stratospheric ozone depletion
Who is the client in the sockeye salmon case?
To take care of wildlife integration is needed. Give examples of aspects of integration
- Nature of food and nutrition problems
- local/situational conditions (causes)
- political & institutional conditions for initiation, management and adjustment of intervention, local/situational conditions (consequences)
- strengths and limitations of potential interventions (ie technical, behavioral etc)
What are the 4 features of health indicators (or measures)??
- PRECISE eg defined the same way by all people
- SENSITIVE eg changes proportionately in response to actual changes in the condition being measured
- CONSISTENT eg not changing over time so that it always measures the same thing
- MEASURABLE eg able to be recorded and analyzed in quantitative and qualitative terms
What are some population health tools
- normal science
- decision support
Why is there a concern with salmonid enhancement?
- Numbers--> >29 million/yr in study area and approx. 50% come from hatcheries
- Competition--> same food and habitat needs and, bigger, stronger, more of them
- genetic selection
- shared diseases
- exposure (same rivers, same estuaries, release of ill)
SO what where the 3 main obstacles in the salmon issue?
- no definition of health
- no known acceptable level of hazard (ex diseases, pathogens, pollutants) in the population
- no data on how these hazards affect fish outside of a lab
What are the steps in tackling the 3 main obstacles?
- Step 1: what more do you want to know about the case?
- Step 2: What would we use to measure salmon health? -physical determinants, social determinants, biological and behavioral determinants