Asepsis and Infection Control

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Asepsis and Infection Control
2013-10-08 18:37:39

Asepsis and Infection control for Exam 2
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  1. What are infective agents?
    • Bacteria
    • Virus
    • Fungi
    • Parasites
    • Protozoa
    • Prions
  2. How do you classify bacteria?
    • Shape
    • Size
    • Cell wall
    • O2 Requirements
  3. What is a prion and what is one example?
    • A small proteinaceous infectious disease-causing agent that is believed to be the smallest infectious particle. ┬áContains no genetic material
    • No treatment available
    • Creutzfelt Jakob Disease (Mad Cow Disease)
  4. What are the components of the Infection Cycle?
    • Infectious agent
    • Reservoir
    • Portal of Exit
    • Transmission
    • Portal of Entry
    • Susceptible host
  5. What are the modes of transmission?
    • Contact: Direct, Indirect, and Fomite
    • Airborne:
    • Droplet:
    • Vector-borne: west nile virus, Lymes disease
  6. What are common portals of exit and entry?
    • respiratory
    • gastrointestinal
    • genitourinary
    • breaks in the skin
    • blood and tissue
  7. What are some determining factors for a susceptible host?
    • Age
    • Immunity: acquired or natural
    • health habits
    • general health status
  8. How do you tell the difference between a local and systemic infection?
    • Local: edema, erythema, exudate
    • Systemic: febrile, fatigue, anorexia, lynph node enlargement, inflammatory response throughout the body
  9. What are the three duration periods of an infection?
    • Acute: fast onset and short infection resulting in healing
    • Chronic: lasts longer than 6 months, such as osteomyelitis
    • Latent: Takes time to show s/s such as Mad Cow Disease
  10. What are the stages of infection?
    • Incubation Period: time of exposure until time of first s/s
    • Prodromal Stage: most infectious stage, general and vague s/s
    • Stage of Illness: s/s of illness
    • Convalescent Stage: recovery
  11. What are the three lines of defense against illness?
    • Primary line of defense: normal flora, mucus membranes, pH balance, anatomical features that limit entry
    • Secondary line of defense: inflammatory response
    • Third line of defense: activation of immune responses against specific, recognized invaders
    • -humoral immunity: B lymphocytes-->allergies
    • -Cell-mediated response: T lymphocytes
  12. What is a normal WBC?
    5,000-10,000 mm3
  13. What are some factors that support host defense?
    • nutrition
    • hygiene
    • rest and exercise
    • stress reduction
    • immunizations
  14. What are some risk factors for infection?
    • developmental stage
    • breaks in the first line of defense
    • illness or injury
    • smoking
    • substance abuse
    • multiple sexual partners
    • environmental factors
    • chronic disease
    • medications
    • nursing and medical procedures
  15. What do the ESR and C-reactive protein labs test for?
    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and c-reactive protein labs are markers to tell if the inflammation response is occuring
  16. What are the lab values for a WBC with differential?
    • Neutrophils-60-80%
    • Monocytes-10%
    • Lymphocytes-10%
    • Eosinophils-3-5%
    • Basophils-2-4%

    • elevated neutrophils are a sign of infection
    • elevated eosinophils are a sign of allergic response
  17. What is the difference between medical and surgical asepsis?
    • Medical asepsis: clean technique
    • surgical asepsis: sterile technique
  18. Who is responsible for creating infection control precautions?
    • OSHA regulations for universal precautions
    • current CDC guidelines
  19. What is the Tier One CDC Guidelines?
    • Standard Precautions
    • -follow hand hygiene techniques
    • -wear clean nonsterile gloves
    • -wear PPE equipment when necessary
    • -Avoid recapping needles
    • -handle soiled patient care equipment carefully
    • -Review room assignments
  20. What are the tier two CDC guidelines?
    • -used for patients with known or suspected to be infected or colonized with infectious agents
    • -use in addition to standard precautions

    • *Contact Precautions (most common)
    • *Droplet Precautions
    • *Airborn Precautions
  21. What is protective isolation?
    It protects an immuno-compromised patient from organisms brought in by healthcare workers and visitors

    ex: neutropenia
  22. What is an HAI?
    A hospital acquired illness

    often a UTI or pneumonia