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who is Sir Robert Peel?
founded the London metropolitan police, and was the father of Modern policing.
what is the History of Policing?
Tithing system - the Anglo-saxon principle establishing the principle of collective responsibility for maintaining local law and order (Tithing - a group of 10 families)
Frankpledge system (Norman system)- requiring all free men to swear loyalty to the king's law and to take responsibility for maintaining the local peace (Hue and Cry - the summoning of all citizens within earshot to join in pursuing and capturing a wrongdoer)
Metropolitan police act - passed in 1829 and was the beginning of modern policing
what is the Metropolitan Police Act?
Sir Robert Peel was appointed to home secretary and proposed paid police officers and in 1829 in london the metropolitan police department was founded. started the beginning of modern policing.
Three Eras of Policing
The political Era
- 1840 - 1930-witnessed the formation of police departments.- police sought an intimate relationship with the community (patronage (spoils)system used a lot during political era - politicians rewarded those who voted for them with jobs or special privileges
The Reform Era (progressive era)-
1930-1980 - emphasized the professional model -(
preventive automobile patrol and rapid response to calls for service)
- police and had a professionally remote relationship with the community they served. (thin blue line - distancing of the police from the public)
The Community Era - 1980 - present - police sought to re-establish a close relationship with the community, police officers become a part of the community, not apart from it.
what is Restorative Justice?
1) a theory of justice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused or revealed by criminal behaviour
2)a balanced approach to sentencing that involves offenders, victims, local communities, and government to alleviate crime and violence obtain peaceful communities.
what is a Mission Statement?
A mission statement is a written declaration of purpose
Vocab: Police Culture
The informal values, beliefs, and expectations passed on to newcomers in the department;
may be at odds with the formal rules, regulations, procedures, and the role of authority of managers
Freedom to make choices among possible courses of action or inaction,
for example, to arrest or not arrest
Granting authority and decision making to lower-level officers.
what is Crime Displacement?
The theory that suggests that successful implementation of a crime-reduction initiative doesn't really prevent crime; instead it just moves crime to another area
what is Reactive Policing?
also called 911 Policing -Incident-driven, Responding after the fact; responding to calls for service. The opposite of proactive
what is Proactive policing?
Anticipating problems and seeking solutions to those problems, as in the community policing. The opposite of Reactive.
describe the process of Decision Making
officers use the DOC model (Dilemmas-options-consequences) - officers are challenged to carefully consider their decisions and the both the short and long term consequences. the goal of fusing problem solving and morality.
what is Problem Solving?
Problem-Solving policing requires police to group incidents and identify the underlying causes of Problems In the community
what is Bowling Alone?
A metaphor referring to a striking decline in social capital and civic engagement in the United states
what is the DOC Model (Dilemmas-options-consequences)
(Dilemmas-options-consequences) - officers are challenged to carefully consider their decisions and the both the short and long term consequences. the goal of fusing problem solving and morality.
what are the Three elements of Criminal Justice system?
Law enforcement - is to prevent, detect, or act on reports of law violations, to apprehend suspects
The Courts - assesses the charge and the evidence as presented by both the prosecution
Corrections - convicted offenders are imprisoned
what is Crime Mapping?
Crime mapping changes the focus from the criminal to the location of the Crime -hot spot where the Crimes occur
Vocab: Analysis (in SARA)
A)Examines the identified problem's causes, scope, and effects; includes determining how often the problem occurs and how long it has been occurring, as well as conditions that appear to create the problem
B)Problem Analysis considers the 1)individual involved 2)the incidents 3) the responses
What is a Social Contract
A legal theory that suggests that for everyone to receive justice, each person must relinquish some individual freedom
what is the SARA Model?
Refers to identifying recurring problems and prioritizing them to select one problem to address.
Examines the identified problem's causes, scope, and effects; includes determining how often the problem occurs and how long it has been occurring, as well as conditions that appear to create the problem
- Response - Acting to alleviate the problem, that is, selecting the alternative solution or solutions.
- Assessment - Refers to evaluating how effective the intervention was; was the problem solved?
VOCAB: Social Capital
Refers to the strength of a community's Social fabric and includes the elements of trustworthiness and obligations.
- Two levels of Social Capital are local and public
- 1)local - the bond among family members and their immediate, informal groups.
2)public - refers to networks tying individuals to broader community institutions, such as schools and churches linking individuals to various levels of government - such as the police
What does the Broken window phenom refer to?
The Broken Windows phenomenon suggests that it appears "no one cares, by Broken Windows not being repaired, then disorder and crime will thrive.
Turning youths away from the criminal justice system, rerouting them to another agency or program
Participatory Decision Making
Participatory leadership - A management style in which each individual has a voice in decisions, but top management still has the ultimate decision-making authority,
Community Policing Specialist
having dedicated officers assigned full time to community policing and partnership-building efforts
Community Policing Generalist
it applies community policing principles to all aspects of police business. and an agency-wide implementation of community policing, seeing community policing as a philosophy that should influence all aspects of police work.
Vocab: Strategic Planning
Long-term, large-scale, futuristic Planning.
An operating principle that encourages flattening of the organization and places decision-making authority and autonomy at the level where information is plentiful, usually at the level of the patrol officer.