The bladder capacity of a child can be determined by what formula?
age in years + 2 = ounces of bladder volume or capacity
Inflammation of the bladder:
Bacteria in the urine:
Infection of the kidney and the renal pelvis:
Infection of the ureters:
Infection of the urethra:
Backward flow of urine into the ureters:
What can result if not treated?
pyelonephritis and scarring
Normal urine specific gravity:
It is __________ when dehydrated.
It is __________ when overhydrated.
1.030 - 1.005
How is a child's urinary system different from an adult?
kidneys are immature
higher risk of fluid overload
bladder capacity smaller
What is the most reliable indicator of the GFR?
creatinine clearance (24 hr urine)
__________ is the most common organism that causes a UTI.
wipe front to back
avoid bubble baths
wear white, cotton underwear
wear loose-fitting pants
increase fluid intake
have child urinate immediately after a bath
Nephrosis is a chronic renal disease characterized by:
heavy proteinuria (protein gets through glomerulus)
severe generalized edema - anasarca
hyperlipidemia (liver tries to bulk up blood)
__________ or nephroblastoma is a common neoplasm of the kidney in children, develops from abnormal __________ tissue, and most often, affects the __________ kidney.
Wilm's tumor is a highly __________ and fragile tumor. The exact cause of this tumor is unknown, but it could be from a possible __________ abnormality.
Wilm's tumor is __________, but there are no tests to identify carriers.
S/s of a Wilm's tumor:
mass in flank area
If a child has Wilm's tumor, do not:
palpate the abd
__________ is an excessive amount of fluid in the scrotum that causes swelling.
A hydrocele is evident in a __________ or shortly thereafter as testicles descend through the inguinal ring into the scrotum.
A hydrocele is dx by:
__________ is also known as undescended testes and is the failure of testes to descend into the scrotal sac. Descent occurs from __ to __ months intrauterine to __ weeks after birth.
What are some causes of a cryptorchidism?
band of fibers at inguinal canal blocking descent
spermatic cord not long enough to reach
decreased testosterone level
Which side does cryptorchidism usually occur in an infant?
There is an increased incidence of cryptorchidism in __________ infants.
An infant with cryptorchidism may have spontaneous descent within the __ year, but other tx options include:
orchiopexy at age 1-2
suture undescended testicle into scrotal sac, repair hernia if present, close inguinal canal
What should you teach the parents of an infant with cryptorchidism?
increase risk of cancer and infertility
TSE when child is older
What are some s/s of HYPOthyroidism in a newborn/infant?
dry, cool skin
dry, brittle hair
puffiness around eyes
large tongue and head
excessive sleepiness "good baby syndrome"
constipation and enlarged abd
hypotonia/floppiness (rag doll appearance)
What are some s/s of HYPERthyroidism?
restlessness, nervousness, emotional lability
declining school performance
increased appetite with weight loss
wide-eyed, staring expression (exophthalmos)
tremors of tongue, hand
A complication of HYPERthyroidism is a thyroid __________. It occurs when there is a sudden release of the thyroid hormone. The s/s can include:
What is the tx?
delirium, seizure, stroke, coma; possible death
same as hyperthyroidism, but with higher doses of meds
Some s/s of type __ diabetes include increased infections such as UTI/vaginal infections and slow healing.
What are the 3 goals of tx for type 1 diabetes mellitus?
ensure normal growth and development through metabolic control
enable child to cope with chronic illness, have happy and active childhood, and be well integrated into family
When a child is in diabetic ketoacidosis (a form of metabolic acidosis) their ABG levels are all _________.
drawing up- NRRN
insulin pump if needed
What should you teach a parent/child with diabetes about nutritional management?
importance of spacing meals throughout day
importance of snacks/carrying snacks
myplate, glycemic index
high fiber foods
What is Cushing syndrome caused by?
excessive circulating free cortisol; cortisol overproduced by adrenal cortex
The bones of kids are:
soft and flexible
Kids have __________ joints that allow for increased range of motion.
__________ is one of the most common deformities of the skeletal system, and characterized by a foot that has been twisted inward or outward.
Talipes equinovarus is:
feet are turned inward, child walks on toes/outer borders of feet
Hip dysplasia is more common in __________.
__________ test is performed to detect an unstable hip in the newborn. The physician extends the hips while stabilizing the pelvis.
__________ sign is when the physician can actually feel and hear the femoral head slip back into the acetabulum under gentle pressure.
__________ dislocation of the hip is more common.
In infants more than 2 months of age, soft tissue contractures prevent stabilization of the hip, and longer-term immobilization with a __________ may be required.
The body __________ cast encircles the waist and extends to the ankles or toes.
What are some early signs of dislocation of the hip?
limitation of abduction
asymmetry of skin folds
shortening of femur
A spica cast maintains the legs in a __________ position and is used to treat developmental hip dysplasia. The infant is able to move toes freely.
__________ skin traction is a type of skin traction used in fractures of the femur and in hip and knee contractures.
Bucks traction (Buck's extension)
__________ traction uses a sling that is positioned under the knee, which suspends the distal thigh above the bed.
Skin traction is applied to the __________ extremity.
Checklist for a traction apparatus:
weights hanging freely
body in alignment
HOB no higher than 20 degrees
heels elevated off of bed
measures to prevent constipation
trapeze for change of position
neuro checks regularly
__________ is an infection of the bone that generally occurs in children younger than 1 year of age and between 5-14 years of age and is more common in __________.
Characteristics of a child with muscular dystrophy:
onset usually between 2-6
calf muscles hypertrophy/pseudohypertrophic
weakness- falling, clumsiness, contractures of ankles/hips,
Juvenile arthritis care:
moist heat/exercise are advised
Commonly called "sway back," often seen during pregnancy:
Also known as "hunchback," and is an increased roundness in the thoracic curve commonly found in the elderly.
An abnormal side to side curvature of the spine:
S/s of scoliosis develop __________ and are not painful so that detection is usually via an incidental screening at school. The __________ are different heights. Dx is made by __________ photography that highlights the asymmetry and a spinal x-ray study.
Tx for scoliosis is aimed at correcting the __________ and preventing more severe scoliosis.
A __________ brace exerts pressure on the chin, pelvis, and convex side of the spine. It is worn __ hrs a day and is worn over a t-shirt.
The __________ brace is proving effective for pts with ______ curvatures, and is more acceptable to the self-conscious young person.
Severe scoliosis necessitates ___________ to fuse the bones.
S/s of IICP:
change in LOC/orientation
change in pupils (PERRLA)
Most common head injury:
Nonprogressive d/o of motion and posture resulting from brain injury or insult during pd of early brain growth:
It is considered the most common permanent disability disease in children.