PSY 361 Exam 1

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  1. Central questions of Developmental Psychology
    • Continuity
    • Sources of Development
    • Individual Differences
  2. Central questions of Developmental Psychology: Continuity
    • Process of development:
    • Gradual and continuous
    • Quantitative changes
    • Or abrupt, with stage-like discontinuities
    • Qualitative changes

    • Developmental Stages
    • Distinguished by qualitative changes (e.g., crawling ↪ walking)
    • Marked by simultaneous changes in many, if not all, aspects of a child’s behavior (e.g., enhanced mobility ↪ new child-caregiver relations)
    • Characterized by rapid changes (e.g., transition from crawling ↪ walking in <90 days)
    • Behavioral and physical changes merge to form a coherent pattern
  3. Central questions of Developmental Psychology: Sources of Development
    Classic Nature (biology) vs. Nurture (environment)

    • John Locke: Tabula rasa (neutral)
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseu (Emile): Innately good
    • Jonathan Swift ("odious vermin"): Intrinsically evil

    Plasticity: Capacity of the brain, particularly in its developmental stages,to respond and adapt to input from the external environment.
  4. What is the difference between continuous development and discontinuous development, what are some examples of each, and what are examples that contain both types?
    • Continuous: Gradual development of shifts in capacities, skills, and behavior with no abrupt changes
    • Ex: Starfish

    • Discontinuous: Abrupt, steplike changes 
    • Ex: Larva ↪ Pupa ↪ Adult Dragonfly

    • Both Continuous and Discontinuous
    • Infancy ↪ Early childhood ↪ middle childhood
  5. What is the difference between a critical period and a sensitive period?
    Critical Period: A specific period in children's development when they are sensitive to a particular environmental stimulus that does not have the same effect on them whe encountered before or after this period.

    Sensitive Period: Children to acquire certain abilities, such as language, discrimination of sensory stimuli, and mental modeling of the environment. Cannot learn trait after period is past.
  6. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
    Oral (0-1): Focus on eating and taking things into the mouth

    Anal (1-3): Emphasis on toilet training; first experience with discipline an authority

    Phallic (3-6): Increase in sexual urges arouses curiosity and alerts children to gender differences;period is critical to formation of gender identity

    Latency (6-12): Sexual urges repressed; emphasis on education and the beginnings of concern for others

    Genital (12+): Altruistic love joins selfish love; need for reproduction of specifies underlies adoption of adult responsibilities
  7. Erickson’s Psychosocial stages
    • Infancy (0-1)
    • Task: To develop basic trust in oneself and others
    • Risk: mistrust of others and lack of self-confidence

    • Early Childhood (1-3)
    • Task: To learn self-control and establish autonomy.
    • Risk: shame and doubt about one's own capabilities

    • Play Age (3-6)
    • Task: To develop initiative in mastering environment
    • Risk: Feelings of guilt over aggressiveness and daring

    • School Age (6-12)
    • Task To develop industry
    • Risk: Feelings of inferiority over real or imagines failure to master tasks

    • Adolescence (12-20)
    • Task: To achieve a sense of identity
    • Risk: Role confusion over who and what individuals wants to be

    • Young Adult (20-30)
    • Task: To achieve intimacy with others
    • Risk: Shaky identity may lead to avoidance of others and isolation

    • Adulthood (30-65)
    • Task: To express oneself through generativity 
    • Risk: Inability to create children, ideas, or products may lead to stagnation 

    • Mature Age (65+)
    • Task: To achieve a sense of integrity
    • Risk: Doubts and unfulfilled desires may lead to despair
  8. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model
    • Chronosystem
    • Macrosystem
    • Exosystem
    • Mesosystem
    • Microsystem
  9. Chronosystem (passage of time)
    The time-based dimension that can alter the operation of all other systems in Bronfenbrenner's model from microsystem through macrosystem
  10. Macrosystem (attitudes and ideologies of the culture)
    The system that surrounds the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem; represents the values, ideologies, and laws of the society or culture
  11. Exosystem (extended family, mass media, friend of family, neighbors, social welfare system)
    The collection of settings, such a a parent's daily work, that impinge on a child's development but in which the child does not play a direct role
  12. Mesosystem (family, school, religion)
    The interrelations among the components of the microsystem
  13. Microsystem (child)
    The context in which children live ad interact with the people and institutions closest to them, such as parents, peers, and school.
  14. Piagetian Theory
    • Interaction between biology and environment
    • Discontinuity (stages of development)
    • Emphasis on individual characteristics
  15. Nature vs. Nurture
    • The caesarian example
    • Baby's with big heads require caesarian
    • More big headedbabies = more big heads

    • Efe Babies example
    • Walking: nature or nurture?
    • Efe babies walk earlier than US babies
  16. Learning perspectives (behaviorism, cognitive social learning theory, etc.)
    A view of development as a process that continues throughout the life cycle, from infancy through adulthood and old age

    Behaviorism: Theories of psychology based on observation of behavior rather than on speculations about motives or unobservable factors

    Cognitive Social Learning Theory: Importance of observation and imitation in the acquisition of new behaviors, with learning mediated by cognitive processes

    Information-Processing Approaches: Focus on the flow of information through the child's cognitive system ad particularly on the specific operations the child performs between input and output phases
  17. Contextual perspectives (sociocultural theory, ecological theory, life-span)
    Sociocultural theory: Lev Vygotsky, development as emerging from children's interactions with more skilled people and the institutions and tools provided by their culture

    Ecological theory: Understanding not only the relationships between organisms and various environmental systems but also the relations among such systems themselves
  18. Research methods

    Methods of gathering data
    Research design & studying change over time
    • Self-Reports
    • Interviews, questionnaires, behavioral checklists

    • Naturalistic Observations
    • Baby biographies (e.g., Darwin, Piaget), ecological studies

    Correlational Studies

    • Experimental Methods
    • Experimental & control group

    • Triangulation "Mixed Methods"
    • Using more than 1 of these methods in combination to provide 2 (or more) types of info for the same question

    Longitudinal design: Same subjects observed at different ages

    Cross-sectional design: Subjects of different ages observed at single point in time

    • Cohort effects
    • The fact that history effects different groups differently 
    • Cohort sequential longitudinal studies
    • Expensive

    • Microgenetic design
    • Looking at the moment of change in micro units to provide a continuous record of change
    • Problems: very micro
  19. How is the environment related to growth and development?
    Environment determines if an organism will survive and what traits an organism needs to adapt to the environment

    Effect of environment on expression of a gene for fur color in the Himalayan rabbit
  20. Definition of allele, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant, recessive and codominant
    Allele: The specific form of a gene coded for a particular trait

    Homozygous: Having inherited 2 genes of the same allelic form for a trait

    Heterozygous: Having inherited 2 genes of different allelic forms for a trait

    Dominant gene: allele expressed when individual possesses 2 different alleles for the same  trait

    Recessive genes: allele that is not expressed when individual possesses 2 different alleles for  the same trait

    Codominance: outcome in which trait determined by 2 alleles is different from the trait  produced by either of the contributing alleles alone
  21. Genetic disorders/Genetic counseling
    • Down Syndrome
    • Physically and mentally retarded development
    • Cause: Extra full or partial chromosome 21

    • Sickle-cell Anemia
    • Cause: Recessive gene
    • Characteristics: Abnormal blood cells cause circulatory problems and severe anemia
    • Incidence of Sickle-Cell Trait: 8-9% of U.S. blacks; 20%+ West Africa
    • Bring eliminated in US gene pool
    • Maintained in Africa

    Sex-Chromosome Abnormalities

    • Genetic Counseling
    • Parents may choose either to abort the child with abnormalities or to prepare for the arrival of such a child, who will need special care
  22. Genotype vs. phenotype, and role environment plays (including examples)
    Genotype: genetic endowment

    Phenotype: observable characteristics

    Role Environment: conditions and circumstances that surround the individual
  23. Gene-environment interactions (passive, evocative, and active) and examples
    • Passive genetic-environmental interaction: environment encourages predispositions
    • Ex: Parents provide home with books and stimulating conversation ↪ Bright children wanting to learn

    • Evocative genetic environmental interaction: inherited tendencies evoke certain responses from others
    • Ex: Infants that smile often ↪ positive stimulation than others somber and unresponsive

    • Active genetic-environmental interaction: genetic makeups encourage "niche picking"
    • Ex: Aggressive children ↪ likely to join martial arts class than chess.
  24. How does culture help us survive?
    • Cultural artifacts
    • Cultural knowledge
    • Cultural inheritance
  25. Examples of how culture and biology are not separate in human and primate evolution
    • Cultural artifacts
    • Examples: hammer, AC, tools to help us eat (hunting tools, fire, preserve food)

    • Cultural knowledge
    • Examples: knowing that a cactus is edible, certain mushrooms are poisonous

    • Cultural inheritance
    • The case of the macaques 
    • Tree-dwelling apes 
    • Researchers bribed apes with sweet potatoes to get them down 
    • Emo put sweet potato into ocean to salt her food 
    • Other apes followed her  
    • Started spending more time in ocean 
    • Began eating food on shore and create traps for fish
  26. What are various ways to study genes vs. the environment and what are the positive aspects and limitations of each one?
    • Family studies: Relatives who live together are compared
    • Twin studies: Monozygotic and dizygotic twins are compared
    • Adoption studies: Children living apart from their biological parents are studied
  27. Define temperament and links to genetics
    General style of emotional response to the environment
  28. Goodness of fit (definition and examples)
    • Match between parenting style & child's temperment
    • Good fit --> positive outcomes
    • Parent should match their interaction style to what their child needs

    If child is shy, don't present things too fast Introduce things that are not so frightening
  29. Germinal, Embryonic, and Fetal stages of development
    Germinal period (single-cell zygote --> morula --> blastocyst): Conception to attachment (8-10 days later)

    Embryonic period (embryo): Attachment to end of 8th week (when all major organs have taken primitive shape)

    Fetal period (fetus): 9th week (with first hardening of the bones) until birth
  30. Fetal sensory capacities and fetal learning (including hallmark study)
    • Fetal Sensory Capacities
    • Sensing motion (5 months)
    • Vision (26 weeks)
    • Sound (5-6 months)

    • Fetal Learning
    • Mothers read Cat in the Hat 2x/day for 1 1/2 months pregnancy
    • Method: Changes in rate of sucking turned on or off a tape recorder
    • Finding: Infants modified rates of sucking in direction produced familiar story
  31. Define teratogens and give some examples.
    An environmental agent that may cause developmental deviations in a growing human organism (embryonic period most vulnerable)

    • Examples:
    • Alcohol
    • Drugs
    • Infections
  32. Stages of Labor/childbirth
    • 1. Feels like baby is coming through birth canal
    • 2. Active labor
    • 3. Placenta is expelled
  33. Apgar Scale: what is it?
    Scale to indicate how healthy the newborn child is

    • Heart rate: Absent, Slow (<100), Over 100
    • Respiratory effect: Absent, Alow, irregular, Good, crying
    • Muscle tone: Flaccid, Some flexion of extremities, Active motion
    • Reflex responsitivity
    • Color
  34. What are some examples of studies that show babies can learn in utero?
    Cat in the Hat study
  35. What are some cultural differences in the way women give birth? (Link to The Business of Being Born)
    • Natural Childbirth
    • 15-25% home births transferred to hospital due to complications

    • Cesarean Delivery
    • Increase from 5-30% in US
    • Likely to get infections
    • Longer hospital stays
  36. What are some alternatives women have for labor and what are the debates surrounding them?
    • Cesarian
    • Natural Birth
    • Midwife

    Supposedly, doctors don't know what's best for the baby and the mother
  37. What are some of the aspects that babies come equipped with to ensure safety and attachment?
    Babyness: Prominent forehead; large eyes below midline of face; round, full cheeks
  38. Premature birth and its consequences/Low birth weight
    • Born before 37th week
    • More likely in twins, very young mothers, women who smoke or are undernourished
    • Immaturity of lungs, digestive, and immune systems
    • Premature babies can catch up to full-term babies
    • Some will have long term problems

    • Typical weight at 7 to 7 1/2 lbs
    • Less than 5 lbs
    • 2/3 of deaths immediately post-birth
    • 3x more likely to have neurologically-based developmental handicaps
  39. Importance and examples of resilience (Box 3.3 in book)
  40. Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale
    • Orientation to animate objects (visual/auditory)
    • Pull-to-sit (e.g., try to right his head)
    • Cuddliness (e.g., resist, passive, tries to cuddle)
    • Defensive movements (e.g., try to remove cloth from face)
    • Self-quieting activity (e.g., suck thumb, look around)
  41. What early sensory capacities are babies born with and how are they tested?
    Habituate: Bore baby with repeated exposure of X

    Dishabituate: Present something new; See if baby notices/perks up, e.g., sucking rate

    Intermodal perception (and examples)
  42. Babies sleep patterns and different views on where babies should sleep
    • 2 weeks: Infants tend to maintain about the same ratio of total sleep, active sleep, and fussy crying in the morning, afternoon, and at night
    • 8 weeks: spend more time in quiet sleep during nighttime hours

    • In basket
    • Separate Room
    • Co-sleeping - same bed
    • Crib near parent's bed
  43. “Kangaroo care”
    • Skin-to-skin contact
    • Regulated breathing, mastered breast feeding earlier
    • Shorter hospital stays,reached developmental milestones sooner
  44. Reflexes – what reflexes are babies born with and what function do they serve?
    • Babinski: toes pan out and curl in when you touch it
    • Crawling: put baby on stomach
    • Moro: drop them suddenly, baby's arms and legs go out to reach for something
    • Rooting: touch cheek, turn to direction
    • Sucking: put something in its mouth, it will suck
    • Grasping: Get things in environment
    • Stepping: held upright on flat surface, will move feet
  45. What are some ways in which babies become accustomed to the world?
  46. Learning and babies: Classical and Operant Conditioning (pg 133), Memory
    • Classical Conditioning:
    • No response to doctor ↪ Doctor give shots, baby cries ↪ Baby afraid of doctor

    • Operant Conditioning: exhibit/inhibit some behavior from rewarding/punishing consequences it brings
    • Sucking in newborns ↪ hear mother's voice

    • Memory: 
    • Sucking rate changes when infant recognizes a color or pattern of a visual stimulus
  47. Infant survival strategies (including “babyness” study)
    Babyness: Prominent forehead; large eyes below midline of face; round, full cheeks
  48. Infant’s preferences in stimuli (what do they like looking at, hearing, etc…)
    • Prefer human voice: high pitch and slow, exaggerated pronunciation
    • Prefer patterned stimuli
    • Prefer mothers face
  49. What do we know about how infants learn, and how does it relate to infant directed media?
    Interaction, care, and experience parents provide (more secure and confident)

    • Infant directed media
    • Do not improve learning 
    • Slow word learning
  50. Movie, Babies and how it illustrates infant communication, early relationships, and cultural variation
    • Nambia
    • Only mom
    • 1 brother
    • Family all around
    • Lots of animals

    • Mongolia
    • Only mom
    • 1 brother
    • Lots of animals

    • Japan
    • Mother and Father
    • Baby groups
    • 1 brother
    • Cat
    • Family gatherings

    • US
    • Mother and Father
    • Baby groups
    • Family gatherings
    • 1 cat
Card Set:
PSY 361 Exam 1
2013-09-30 01:07:21
Child Adolescent Development Correa

Child and Adolescent Development Ch. 1-5
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