PSYC 1100 Section 1.2 The Individual Neuron and the Organization of the Nervous System
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Organ systems that are important for the biological basis of psychology
- motor, digestive, endocrine
- nervous system is particularly important
- nerve cells, the basic cellular units of the nervous system
Neurons are electrically and chemically active
- electrical activity. "action potentials"
- chemical signaling, release of chemicals on other neurons
- the point of functional connection between two neurons
- the gap is called the synaptic cleft, which separates two neurons. Most neurons communicate to each other by releasing chemical signals known as neurotransmittersNeurotransmitters are released from the terminals of the
- presynaptic neuron when ana action potential reaches the terminal. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synapse to act on the postsynaptic membrane of the second cell
- The postsynaptic cell then transduces this chemical activity into some type of metabolic or electrical charge
Organization of the Nervous System
- Central Nervous System (CNS)- brain
- - spinal cord
- Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)- axons, terminals and cell bodies in the rest of the body, including sensory, motor and automatic nervous system
Aggregations of Cellular Components
- Aggregation of cell bodies (somata):
- - nucleus of cells (CNS)
- - Ganglion (PNS)
- - sometimes called "gray matter"
- Bundle of Axons:
- - Tract corpus colossum (CNS)
- - Nerve (PNS)
- - sometimes called "white matter"
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