PSYC 1100 Section 1.2 The Individual Neuron and the Organization of the Nervous System

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  1. Organ systems that are important for the biological basis of psychology
    • motor, digestive, endocrine
    • nervous system is particularly important
  2. Neurons
    • nerve cells, the basic cellular units of the nervous system
    • soma
    • dendrite
    • axon
    • terminal
  3. Neurons are electrically and chemically active
    • electrical activity. "action potentials"
    • chemical signaling, release of chemicals on other neurons
  4. Synapse
    • the point of functional connection between two neurons
    • the gap is called the synaptic cleft, which separates two neurons. Most neurons communicate to each other by releasing chemical signals known as neurotransmitters
    • Neurotransmitters are released from the terminals of the 
    • presynaptic neuron when ana action potential reaches the terminal. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synapse to act on the postsynaptic membrane of the second cell
    • The postsynaptic cell then transduces this chemical activity into some type of metabolic or electrical charge
  5. Organization of the Nervous System
    • Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • - brain
    • - spinal cord
    • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    • - axons, terminals and cell bodies in the rest of the body, including sensory, motor and automatic nervous system
  6. Aggregations of Cellular Components
    • Aggregation of cell bodies (somata):
    • - nucleus of cells (CNS)
    • - Ganglion (PNS)
    • - sometimes called "gray matter"
    • Bundle of Axons:
    • - Tract corpus colossum (CNS)
    • - Nerve (PNS)
    • - sometimes called "white matter"

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PSYC 1100 Section 1.2 The Individual Neuron and the Organization of the Nervous System
2013-09-29 01:01:36

Sec 1.2
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