Histology #3- Soft Connective Tissues

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  1. Describe the basic molecular constituents of soft connective tissue and how they contribute to the functional properties of the connective tissue organs (SOFT CONNECTIVE TISSUE COMPOSITION)
    • 2-3% cells (by V) {so very small V but important -b/c they maintain the matrix- if kill these cells the matrix wears out and dies}- manufacture and maintain the matrix
    • Mostly Extracellular matrix:
    • -mostly water 70-80%
    • -collagen is the most abundant protein (biopolymer): various types (I, II, III fibrillar which are the structural component); Bone/tendon/ligaments etc types I, III; cartilage type II
    • -Proteoglycans: large aggregating- aggrecate using a highly ironic acid backbone that's a sugar; small (leucine rich)- decronin, biglycan fibromodulin
  2. What ECM has tensile strength and which has compressive resistance?
    • Tensile strength: collagen, elastin, glycoproteins
    • Compressive; proteoglycas, water, mineral
  3. Each collagen fiber has how many polypeptide chains?
    3 = trimer
  4. What are the characteristics of type II collagen?
    Quarter stage: bind by covalent cross links that keep them together
  5. What are the characteristics of Aggrecan Aggregate? (proteoglycans)
    • Hyaluronan backbone (each is a polypeptide)
    • aggrecan monomoers (with GAG chains- glycol-amino-glycans that grow off: each has highly negative charge which suck water into them = cushion)
  6. Why is cartilage a "preloaded" structure?
    because of a combo of collagen fibers that have tension and the proteoglycans between them (that hold water) and cushion
  7. Are cartilage and meniscus always mineralized?
    No, but can be
  8. List the histological categories of soft connective tissue
    • 1. Connective tissue proper -fibrocytes {make connective tissue connect} (macrophages, blood cells)
    • -loose areolar
    • -dense, irregular
    • -dense, regular
    • 2. Cartilages-- chondrocytes
    • -hyaline
    • -fibrocartilage
    • -elastic cartilage
  9. ID the cell types of connective tissue proper and describe their functional significance
    • 1. Loose areolar - synovium, mesentery, fat etc... far apart and spacious
    • 2. Dense, irregular- joint capsule, dermis, subcutis... closer together
    • 3. Dense, regular- tendon, ligament, fascia, chorda tendinea... crinkley lines stacked
  10. What are the connective tissue envelopes?
    • Epitenon, peritenon, endotenon (for ligaments, epiligament, endoligament)
    • so outer edge of tendon, edge of openings inside or fasicle, inner space around sub-fibril
  11. Types of cartilage (by morphology)
    • Hyaline (glassy)- found in joints, trachea, nose, growth plates
    • Fibrocartilage (fibrous)- found in meniscus, articular labrum, skeleton of heart, IVD
    • Elastic cartilage (fibrous +elastic) found in pinna of ear and epiglottis
  12. Mensici
    • Semi-lunar fibrocartilages
    • -avascular inner margin
    • -some vasculature on periphery
  13. How do tendons and cartilage work in relation to each other
    Tendon works like rope while cartilage works like a sponge with coating
  14. How does cartilage work?
    • Resists loads/deformations by:
    • -swelling (proteoglycans build up the pressure): Large PGs/turger pressure (holds the water), (ie papain experiment in rabbits digests PGs- but resynthesized again rapidly)
    • -collagen network resists swelling
  15. How is cartilage a preloaded structure
    Balancing act between the internal swelling pressure of the PG gel and the tensile restraints of the collagen network
  16. What is the function of cartilage
    • Resilient and elastic support: mineralization, attachment, compression, shear, tension
    • lubrication of articular surfaces (lubricin)
  17. What is a cartilage creep- static load?
    Put weight on a piece of cartilage and water exudes, lift weight off and water goes in again- time related properties
  18. ID the cell types of Adipose Tissue (a special brand of connective tissue) and describe their functional significance
    • White adipose tissue
    • -unilocular adipocytes: peripheral nuclei, one lage droplet; E storage/padding/inflammatory organ
    • Brown adipose tissue
    • -multiocular adipocytes: central nuclei = multiple peripheral lipid droplets; rich in mitochondria = brown pigment; specialized heat production
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Histology #3- Soft Connective Tissues
2013-09-29 01:45:06
Soft Connective tissues

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