Cervical

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Author:
amills1
ID:
237597
Filename:
Cervical
Updated:
2013-09-28 23:31:42
Tags:
PTA202 PTA 202 Cervical
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Description:
Cervical spine PP and class notes.
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  1. Cervical Spine Components
    • Occiput
    • Atlas
    • Axis
    • C3-T1 Segments
  2. Type of movement at atlanto-occipital
    Slight flexion and extension
  3. C2 and C1
    • Atlantoaxial
    • Pivot Joint
    • Rotation with a lil bit of flexion
  4. What usually occurs with side bend at cervical
    Rotation in the opposite direction
  5. Function of transverse and alar ligaments
    Wrap C2 and C1's articulating surface
  6. Anterior Longitudinal Ligament prevents
    Extension
  7. Posterior longitudinal ligament prevents
    Flexion
  8. Intertransverse Ligament prevents
    Lateral bend
  9. Supraspinous Ligament
    Flexion
  10. Interspinous Ligament
    Prevent flexion and rotation
  11. Ligamentum Flavum
    • Holds left and right lamina together
    • Runs on the inside of the vertebral canal
  12. Ligamentum Nuchae
    The stronger cervical version of the supraspinous
  13. Reasons for having vertebral artery compromise
    • DDD (degenerative disk disease)
    • OA
    • Trauma
    • Hypermob of AA and/or OA
  14. SnS of Vert Artery Compromise
    • Diaphoresis
    • Vertigo
    • Nystagmus
    • Unilateral Dialation
    • Diplopia
    • Unconsicousness
  15. Which muscle reversal actions cause cervical compression
    • SCM
    • Scalenes
    • Traps (up?)
    • Levator Scap
  16. 2 Most commonly shortened muscles with forward head
    • SCM
    • Suboccipitals
  17. 3 secondary affected muscles with forward head
    • Levator
    • Scalenes
    • UT
  18. What seperates C7 from rest of cervical
    • Largest
    • Lack of bifurcate
  19. What determines full ROM of a neuro stretch
    All motions prior to lateral bend
  20. Hypermobility results from
    • Something not doing its job
    • RA
    • Muscle imbalance
    • Trauma
    • Ligamentous
    • Neurological
  21. What myo and dermatomes do we need to know for cerv/thoracic
    • C5-C8
    • T1 and T2
  22. (Nerve root vs Peripheral Nerve)
    Peri Nerve compression results in effecting
    Which location it innervates, not a dermatome
  23. (Nerve root vs Peripheral Nerve)
    Dermatome
    Pain, numbness, tingling is diff location than peri nerve
  24. Another way to say nerural menigeal ROM
    Neural Extensibility
  25. Hypermobility is a precaution for
    Stretching and ROM
  26. What exercises to accommodate cervical hypermob
    • Postural correction
    • Scapulo-thoracic and cervical stabilization
  27. To decrease forward head posture impairment..
    • Axial extension and stabilization exercises
    • Stretching strengthening
    • Neural Stretching
  28. Disk Dysfunction definition and causes
    • Changes in disk that alter its biomechanics preventing normal function
    • DDD
    • Herniated Disk
  29. SnS disk dysfunction
    • Painful limit of AROM in all planes
    • Especially flexion (interdiscal pressure)
    • Pain on cough/sneeze
    • Neurological signs 
    • -referred pain
    • -decreased DTR
    • -sensory changes
  30. Positional Dysfunction has pain occur with
    • Loading due to upright posture 
    • Muscle contracts
  31. Cervical sprain/strain example
    Trauma like MVA
  32. Soft tissue involved with cervical sprain/strain
    • Muscle
    • Ligament
    • Capsule
    • Disk
    • Articular Cartilage
  33. Cervical Sprain/Strain SnS
    • Severity varies greatly
    • Pain with ROM
    • Pain with upright postures or muscle contractions
    • Usually no neurological signs
  34. Neural Entrapment Description
    • Root impingement. Can be from foramen stenosis or narrowing
    • Can happen at plexus, root, or perinerve
  35. Causes of neural entrapment
    • Injury
    • Arthritis
    • Inflammation
  36. Sns of neural entrapment
    • Referred pain usually in dermatome distribution
    • Exacerbated by forward head, cerv extension, or quadrant position (cerebral artery test)
    • Neuro changes of dermatome, myotome, and DTRs
  37. Cervicogenic HA
    • Neural entrapment of
    • -occipital nerve
    • -trigeminal nerve
    • -c2-c3 nerve roots
  38. Cervicogenic HA causes
    • Posture
    • Mobility
  39. Accommodations fo Cervicogenic HAs
    • Stretching
    • Trigger points
  40. Torticollis
    Fixed or dynamic tilt, rotation, or flexion of head and/or neck
  41. Acute phase for disk dysfunction and sprain/strain
    • Breathing exercises
    • Traction
    • Postural EX
    • Rest and unloading
  42. Subacute/Chronic disk dysfunction and sprain/strain
    Treat noted impairments
  43. Deep cervical extensors are lower or higher than suboccipitals?
    Lower

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