CVA Exam 1

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smville_fan
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237611
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CVA Exam 1
Updated:
2013-09-29 00:19:53
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comparative anatomy
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  1. Myxine
    • a.      
    • Hagfish

    • b.     
    • Cyclostomes “round mouth”

    • c.      
    • Only vertebrate whose ancestors never lived in
    • fresh water
  2. 1.      
    Petromyzontida
    • a.      
    • Lamprey

    • b.     
    • Blocks of cartilage atop notochord

    • c.      
    • Hagfish + lamprey = cyclostomes
  3. 1.      
    Ammocoetes
    • a.      
    • Larval stage that can last up to 7
    • years>>nonfeeding adult that reproduces then dies
  4. ostracoderms
    • a.      
    • Pteraspidomorphs

    • a.      
    • Other ostracoderms
  5. a.      
    Pteraspidomorphs
    • i.     
    • Very large and rock like
  6. a.      
    Other ostracoderms
    • i.     
    • Bony, lived in shallow marine environments

    •                                                             
    • ii.     
    • Heavy armor

    •                                                            
    • iii.
  7. The
    jawed fish “gnathostomes”
    • 1.      
    • jaws from anterior pharyngeal arches; two sets
    • of paired fins (pectoral and pelvic)
  8. Placodermi
    • “plate
    • skin
    •                                                                i.     
    • 400 mya

    • Prominent notochord accompanied by ossified
    • neural and hemal arches

    •                                                               
    • i.     
    • Earliest know
    • viviparity (live birth)





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    • neural and hemal arches
  9. Chondrichthyes
    • cartilaginous
    • fish

    • Elasmobranches: sharks
    • and rays

    •                                                               
    • i.     
    • Holocephali: ratfish





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    • neural and hemal arches
  10. i.     
    Elasmobranches: sharks and rays





    
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    EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>Prominent notochord accompanied by ossified
    neural and hemal arches
    • 1.      
    • Cartilaginous

    • 2.      
    • No swim bladders; large buoyant livers, pectoral
    • fins as hydrofoils

    • 3.      
    • Placoid scleas: pointed or cone shaped; do not
    • grow

    • 4.      
    • Claspers on males for holding and insemination
  11. i.     
    Holocephali: ratfish
    • 1.      
    • Gills covered by a skin operculum

    • 2.      
    • Males have cephalic clasper on head

    • 3.      
    • Large pectora fins
  12. a.      
    Teleostomi: bony fish
    • i.     
    • Acanthodii “spiny forms”

    ii. Osteichthyes
  13. i. Acanthodii “spiny forms”
    • 1. Minnow sized but some 2 meters
    • 2. Each fin defined by fixed spine supporting a thin web of skin
    • 3. Vertebral column= ossified neural and hemal arches along notochord
    • 4. Dermal armor reduced compared to ostracoderms
  14. ii. Osteichthyes
    • 1. Pervasive presence of bone esp throughout endoskeleton
    • 2. Terminal mouth
    • 3. Bony operculum covers gill slits
    • 4. Fins are strengthened by bony rays
    • 5. Address buoyancy with swim bladder
  15. ii. Osteichthyes
    • a. Actinoptergii : rayfinned fish
    • b. Sarcopterygians: fleshy-finned fish: 
    • c. Tiktaalik
  16. Actinoptergii
    rayfinned fish; encompasses everything we knowi. Muscles control fins inside body walls
  17. Sarcopterygians
    fleshy-finned fish: fins rest at the ends of short, projecting appendages with soft muscles
  18. Tiktaalik
    i. Link between other sarcopterygians and early tetrapondsii. Shoulder girdle and appendages. Appendages end in fin rays
  19. 6. TetrapodaTiktaalik
    • b. Lepeospondyls
    • c. Amniotes
    • e. Euryapsids
    • f. Diapsid
    • g. Synapsida
  20. 6. Tetrapoda
    • i. Chiridium: A muscular limb with well-defined joints and digitsii.
    • Acanthostega: early tetrapod, the four footed fishiii.
    • Dermal skull bone, limbs with digitsiv.
    • First “ear” appearancev.
    • Lissamphibia: leads to “modern amphibian”
  21. b. Lepeospondyls
    • i. Tetrapoda characterized by chiridium: a muscular limb with well-defined joints and digits
    • ii. Simple, spood shaped vertebra composed of bony cylinders around the notochord
  22. c. Amniotes
    embryos enveloped in extraembryonic membranes. Usually packages in calcareus or leathery egg

    i. Diadectes: sister group to amniotes: one of first terrestrial animals to attain large size
  23. e. Euryapsids
    : small upper hole like synapsid but smaller holei. Plesiosaur: carnivorous marine reptile
  24. Diapsid
    • two holesi.
    • Tuatara
  25. iii. Dinaosauria
    two groups differenciated by hip characteristics

    • 1. Ornithischian 
    • 2. Saurischian
  26. 1. Ornithischian
    narrow one piece; bones are longer
  27. 2. Saurischian
    more walking-like
  28. g. Synapsida (still under amniota)
    i. Paraphyletic ii. Gave rise to therapsids
  29. therapsids
    a. Quadrupedal stanceb. Five digitsc. Skull and lower jaw became simplified
  30. 2. Cynodons (under synapsida)
    mostly carnivorous; teeth specialized for slicing; body size became smaller; only one group survived
  31. 3. Mammalia (under synapsida)
    a. Likely laid eggs, did not nurse, no external eyes

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