AP European History- The Renaissance and the Age of Discovery: Social and Political Breakdown (1450-

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  1. Italian Renaissance-
    The Italian Renaissance was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. 
  2. Jacob Burckhardt-
    Carl Jacob Christoph Burckhardt (May 25, 1818 – August 8, 1897) was a historian of art and culture, and an influential figure in the historiography of each field. Burckhardt's best known work is The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860).
  3. City-states-
    A city-state is an independent or autonomous entity, not administered as a part of another local government, whose territory consists of a city and possibly its surrounding territory.
  4. Signori-
    Giuseppe "Beppe" Signori ; (born 17 February 1968 in Alzano Lombardo, Bergamo) is a retired Italian football striker, one of the top scorers in Serie A history, although he never received a winners medal in competitive football.
  5. Oligarchies-
    Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people.
  6. Commenda System-
    A part of a form of partnership similar to a general partnership, except that in addition to one or more general partners, there are one or more limited partners.
  7. Condotierri-
    Condottieri were the mercenary soldier leaders (or warlords) of the professional, military free companies contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy, from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance.
  8. Republic of Florence-
    The Republic of Florence, or the Florentine Republic, was a city-state that was centered on the city of Florence, located in modern Tuscany, Italy.
  9. Medici Family-
    The House of Medici was a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century.
  10. Cosimo de' Medici
    Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464) was the first of the Medici political dynasty, de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance; also known as "Cosimo 'the Elder'" ("il Vecchio") and "Cosimo Pater Patriae" (Latin: 'father of the nation').
  11. Lorenco de' Medici
    Lorenzo de' Medici (1 January 1449 – 9 April 1492) was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance.
  12. Duchy of Milan-
    The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy.
  13. Sforza family-
    Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan.
  14. Republic of Venice-
    The Republic of Venice was a state originating from the city of Venice in Northeastern Italy.
  15. Papal States-
    The Papal States were territories in the Italian peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the Pope, from the 500s until 1870.
  16. Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies-
    The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the largest of the Italian states before Italian unification.
  17. Charles VIII-
    Charles VIII, called the Affable, French: l'Affable (30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498.
  18. Girolamo Savonarola-
    Girolamo Savonarola (1452–1498) was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence, and known for his prophecies of civic glory and calls for Christian renewal
  19. Machiavelli, The Prince-
    Merchant Prince is a video game published in 1993 taking place in Italy during the Renaissance.
  20. Cesare Borgia-
    Cesare Borgia ; 13 September 1475 or April 1476 – 12 March 1507), Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal.
  21. Sack of Rome, 1527-
    The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States.
  22. Charles V-
    Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556.
  23. Humanism-
    Humanism is a group of philosophies and ethical perspectives which emphasize the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers individual thought and evidence.
  24. Civil humanism-
    Classical republicanism (also known as civic humanism) is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.
  25. Petrarch-
    Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch in English; July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374) was an Aretine scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists.
  26. Bocaccio, Decameron-
    Giovanni Boccaccio (1313 – 21 December 1375)[1] was an Italian author and poet, student, and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist and the author of a number of notable works including the Decameron, On Famous Women, and his poetry in the Italian vernacular.
  27. Leonardo Bruni-
    Leonardo Bruni (1370 – March 9, 1444) was an Italian humanist, historian and statesman.
  28. Lorenzo Valla, Elegances of the Latin-
    Lorenzo (or Laurentius) Valla (c.1407 – 1 August 1457) was an Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator.
  29. Language; On the False Donation of Constantine-
  30. Constantine- 
    Constantine the Great (27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337.
  31. Latin Vulgate-
    The Vulgate is a late 4th-century Latin translation of the Bible.
  32. Marsilio Ficino-
    Marsilio Ficino (19 October 1433 – 1 October 1499) was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance, an astrologer, a reviver of Neoplatonism who was in touch with every major academic thinker and writer of his day, and the first translator of Plato's complete extant works into Latin.
  33. Pico Della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man-
    Count Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (24 February 1463 – 17 November 1494) was an Italian Renaissance philosopher.
  34. Baldassare Castiglione, Book of the Courtier virtu-
    Christendom, or the Christian world, has several meanings. In a cultural sense, it refers to the worldwide community of Christians, adherents of Christianity. In its historical sense, the term usually refers to the medieval and early modern period, during which the Christian world represented a geopolitical power juxtaposed with both paganism and especially the military threat of the Muslim world.
  35. Johann Gutenberg, printing press, moveable type quattrocento, 1400s-
  36. Giorgio Vasari, The Lives of the Artists-
  37. Cinquecento, 1500s-
    Cinquecento was the Italian Renaissance of the 16th century, including the current styles of art, music, literature, and architecture.
  38. Pope Alexander VI-
    Pope Alexander VI, born Roderic Llançol i de Borja (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503) was the head of the Catholic Church from 11 August 1492 to his death in 1503.
  39. Perspective-
    Perspective (visual), the way in which objects appear to the eye.
  40. Chiaroscuro-
    Chiaroscuro (Italian for light-dark) in art is the use of strong contrasts between light and dark, usually bold contrasts affecting a whole composition.
  41. Stylized faces-
    In social sciences, especially economics, a stylized fact is a simplified presentation of an empirical finding.
  42. Sfumato-
    Sfumato is one of the four canonical painting modes of the Renaissance (the other three being Cangiante, Chiaroscuro, and Unione).
  43. Contrapposto-
    Contrapposto is an Italian term that means counterpose.
  44. Greek temple architecture- 
    Greek temples were structures built to house deity statues within Greek sanctuaries in ancient Greek religion.
  45. Giotto-
    Giotto di Bondone (1266/7 – January 8, 1337), better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages.
  46. Brunelleschi, II Duomo-
  47. Lorenzo Ghiberti, " gates of paradise"-
    Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 – 1 December 1455), born Lorenzo di Bartolo, was a Florentine Italian artist of the Early Renaissance best known as the creator of the bronze doors of the Baptistry of Florence Cathedral, called by Michelangelo the "Gates of Paradise"
  48. Donatello, David-
    David is the name of two statues by Italian early Renaissance sculptor Donatello.
  49. Masaccio, Expulsion of Adam & Eve-
    The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden is a fresco by the Italian Early Renaissance artist Masaccio. The fresco is a single scene from the cycle painted around 1425 by Masaccio, Masolino and others on the walls of the Brancacci Chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence.
  50. Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus-
    The Birth of Venus (Italian: Nascita di Venere) is a 1486 painting by Sandro Botticelli.
  51. "High Renaissance"-
    In art history, High Renaissance, is the period denoting the apogee of the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance
  52. Bramante-
    Donato Bramante (1444 – 11 March 1514) was an Italian architect, who introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo.
  53. Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa-
    The Mona Lisa (La Gioconda or La Joconde) is a half-length portrait of a woman by the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci, which has been acclaimed as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world.
  54. Raphael, School of Athens-
    The School of Athens, or Scuola di Atene in Italian, is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael.
  55. Michelangelo, David; ceiling of Sistine Chapel; dome on St. Peter's basilica, Pieta-
    The Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, is a cornerstone work of High Renaissance art.
  56. Titian-
    Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. 1488/1490 – 27 August 1576) known in English as Titian was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
  57. Mannerism-
    Mannerism is a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520.
  58. El Greco-
    El Greco, born Doménikos Theotokópoulos (1541 – 7 April 1614), was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.
  59. Northern Renaissance-
    The Northern Renaissance is the Renaissance that occurred in the European countries north of Italy.
  60. Chrisitian humanism-
    Christian humanism emphasizes the humanity of Jesus, his social teachings and his propensity to synthesize human spirituality and materialism.
  61. Erasmus, In Praise of Folly-
    In Praise of Folly is an essay written in Latin in 1509 by Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam and first printed in 1511.
  62. Thomas More, Utopia-
    Utopia is a work of fiction and political philosophy by Thomas More (1478–1535) published in 1516, composed in the Latin language.
  63. Jacques Lefevre d'Etables-
    Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples or Jacob Faber Stapulensis[1] (c. 1455 – 1536) was a French theologian and humanist.
  64. Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros-
    Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, O.F.M. (1436 – November 8, 1517), known as Ximénes de Cisneros in his own lifetime, was a Spanish cardinal and statesman.
  65. Francios Rebalais, Gargantua and Pantagruel-
    François Rabelais (c. 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
  66. Michel de Montaigne, skepticism-
    Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre, and commonly thought of as the father of modern skepticism.
  67. William Shakespeare-
    William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist
  68. Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote-
    Don Quixote, fully titled The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha (Spanish: El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra.
  69. Flemish style-
    Flemish painting flourished from the early 15th century until the 17th century.
  70. Jan van Eyck-
    Jan van Eyck (or Johannes de Eyck; before c. 1390 – before c. 9 July 1441) was a Flemish painter active in Bruges and is generally considered one of the most significant Northern European painters of the 15th century.
  71. Bosch-
    Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450 – 9 August 1516) was an Early Netherlandish painter.
  72. Peter Brueghel, the Elder-
    Pieter Bruegel (Brueghel) the Elder Dutch pronunciation; c. 1525 – 9 September 1569) was a Flemish Renaissance painter and printmaker known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (so called genre painting).
  73. Albercht Durer-
    Albrecht Dürer ( 21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528) was a German painter, engraver, printmaker, mathematician, and theorist from Nuremberg.
  74. Hans Holbein the Younger-
    Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1497 – between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style.
  75. Fugger family-
    The Fugger family is a German family that was a historically prominent group of European bankers, members of the fifteenth and sixteenth-century mercantile patriciate of Augsburg, international mercantile bankers, and venture capitalists.
  76. Christine de Pisan-
    Christine de Pizan (also seen as de Pisan) (1364 – c. 1430) was an Italian French late medieval author.
  77. Isabella d'Este-
    Isabella d'Este (18 May 1474 – 13 February 1539) was Marchesa of Mantua and one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance as a major cultural and political figure.
  78. Artemesia Gentilleschi-
    Artemisia Gentileschi (July 8, 1593 – c.1656) was an Italian Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation after Caravaggio.
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AP European History- The Renaissance and the Age of Discovery: Social and Political Breakdown (1450-
2013-09-29 21:47:08
European history renaissannce

All the identifications for the vocabulary of chapter 10
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