Test 2 lecture (lecture 8 & 9)

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Test 2 lecture (lecture 8 & 9)
2013-09-29 12:30:23
Test lecture

Test 2 lecture (lecture 8 & 9)
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  1. Microfilament
    Actin and Myosin

    HelpĀ movement-esp. in muscle

    Mechanical support- cell structure
  2. Intermediate filament
    stabilize organelle position
  3. Micritubule
    fill out the flagella and cilia they also create the spindle fibers
  4. Ribosomes
    Site of protein synthesis

    (made of rRNA)
  5. Golgi Complex
    modify sort and package proteins into vesicles for transport
  6. Lysosomes
    contain > 60 digestive enzymes

    they also digest bacteria, viruses, substance entering via endocytosis
  7. Mitochondria
    The powerhouse of the cell

    generate ATP

    contains its own DNA
  8. Gene
    Is a segment of DNA that contain the code for producing a specifi protein
  9. a Gene is said to be "expressed when?
    When the protein it codes for is produced
  10. Transcription
    occurs in the nucleus = formation of mRNA from DNA template

    Synthesis of messenger RNA
  11. Transliation
    Occurs in cytoplasm= formation of a specific protein at a ribosome using mRNA as a template

    Actual synthesis of a protein
  12. Protein synthesis occurs in how many steps?
    it occurs in 2 steps

    • Transcription (occurs in the nucleus)
    • Translation (occurs in the cytoplasm)
  13. Steps in transcription
    • *DNA unzips and unwinds
    • *Free RNA nucleotides pair with the complementary DNA bases
    • * RNA transcript is then released from the DNA
    • *DNA then closes again
  14. Promoter
    Sequence of DNA nucleotide bases at the beginning of a gene that is the start signal for transcription
  15. RNA polymerase
    Enzyme that binds w/ the promoter, opens DNA helix, and aligns and links together the RNA nucleotides
  16. Terminator
    another sequence of bases at the end of the gene is the stop signal
  17. Codon
    a 3 base sequence along the mRNA molecule that translates into 1 amino acid
  18. Translation
    brings all 3 types of RNA together

    • mRNA - transcription
    • tRNA- deliver AA's to the ribosome
    • rRNA- make up a ribosome
  19. Mutation
    A gene that has been altered, therefore codes for an altered pr abnormal protein
  20. DNA replication
    only happens in Interphase

    Each new double-stranded helix is made of 1 new strand and 1 old strand
  21. Semiconservative replication
    Each new double-stranded helix is made of 1 new strand and 1 old strand
  22. Sex cell
    • egg and sperm
    • 23 chromosomes (called haploid)
    • Divide by process of MEIOSIS
  23. Somatic cell
    • All the other cells in our body
    • 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) (called diploid)
    • Divide by process of MITOSIS
  24. Interphase
    • Cell is NOT diving
    • DNA replicates
  25. Mitotic phase
    forms 2 identical cells
  26. Sister chromatids are held together at a region called the:
  27. the 2 chromosomes that make up each pair are called
    Homologous chromosome
  28. Meiosis consists of how many cell division and how many replication of DNA
    Meiosis consists of 2 cell division but only 1 replication of DNA
  29. Crossing over
    Is a factor responsible for genetic variation
  30. Independent Assortment
    is another factor in genetic variation
  31. Mitosis
    • occurs in SOMATIC cells
    • the process of dividing the replicated DNA that results in 2 IDENTICAL "daughter" cells
    • each with 46 chromosomes
  32. Meiosis
    • occurs only in SEX cells
    • divides replicated DNA after crossing over/ independent assortment have occurred
    • involves a second division that results in NON-IDENTICAL cells
    • each with 23 chromosomes
  33. Karyotype
    the chart with the 23 pairs of chromosomes in order
  34. Nondisjunction
    • occurs when both members of a homologous pair of chromosome go into the same daughter cell in meiosis 1
    • or when sister chromatids fail to separate in meiosis 2
  35. Monosomy
    • results of nondisjunction
    • cell has only 1 copy of a chromosome
  36. Trisomy
    • results of nondisjunction
    • cell has 3 copies of a chromosome
  37. Characteristics of cancer cells
    • Lack differentiation- do not contribute to body functioning
    • Unlimited ability to divide-uncontrolled growth
    • undergo angiogenesis- formation of new blood vessels to supply nutrients
    • Becomes abnormal gradually
    • Form malignant tumors
    • Have abnormal morphology
  38. Carcinogen
    anything that can cause cancer, usually by producing mutations in key regions of DNA
  39. Oncogenes
    Specific genes that become active in cancer