Chapter 3: Life in Water

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  1. what are the currents that you should know
    • 1. califoria current
    • -north pacific going south
    • 2. gulf stream
    • -tropics, atlantic
    • -moderates temperature in northwest europe
  2. what is the verticle structure of the ocean in association with substantial variation in light and temperature with depth
    80% of solar energy is in first 10m

    • 1. intertiadal zone
    • 2. neritic zone
    • 3. epipelagic zone
    • 4. mesopelagic zone
    • 5. bathypelagic zone
    • 6. abyssal zone
    • 7.hadal zone
  3. oceanic zone
    warm water floats on top of cool water and creates a thermocline
  4. oceanic zone
    • -open ocean, salinity varies from 34-36.5 ppt
    • -lowest salinity occurs in subtropics
  5. oceanic zone
    concentration is highest near ocean surface and decreases with depth because on photosynthesis and next to air on surface
  6. shallow marine waters
    what are the types of reefs and where do they occur
    • fringing-hawaii
    • barrier-australia
    • atoll-numerous, south pacific
  7. shallow marine layer
    where do reefs and kelp grow?
    in surface area where sufficient lighg for phptosynthesis
  8. shallow marine waters
    what does flushing of the currents do
    delivers oxygen ans nutrients and removes waste products
  9. shallow marine waters
    what are reef and kelp beds good at
    most productive and diverse ecosystems in the world
  10. how are reefs and kelp forsts distributed
    reefs grow towards the equator because it is warmee and will get more sunlight
  11. reefs
  12. kelp
  13. shallow marine waters
    how does coral grow for fringing reefs
    grows around young islands
  14. shallow marine waters
    how does coral grow for barrier reefs
    an island subside coral continues to grow upward and outward toward the sea
  15. shallow marine waters
    how does coral grow for attol reefs
    island continues to subside, coral growth at top while island is completely under water
  16. matine shores
    what are the layers of marine shores and when are they covered
    • supratidal-covered by highest tide
    • upper intertidal-covered by high tide
    • lower intertidal-unvovered during low tide
    • subtidal-cobered by water even at lowest tide
  17. marine shores
    whatnis sd tidal regime

    • 2 high 2 low
    • second not as high or low
  18. marine shores
    what affects the distribution and abundance of intertidal organisms
    waves and tides
  19. marine shores
    what leads to zonation of species
    difderential tolerance to air, temperature, and salinity exposure
  20. marine shores
    what are the two types of tides
    • diurnal tides- one high one low each day
    • semidiurnal-two high two low each day
  21. salt marshes and mangrove forests
    what type of wetlands are dominates by salt water
    salt marshes
  22. salt marshes and mangrove forests
    what are they always under the influence of
    the ocean
  23. salt marshes and mangrove forests
    what kind of plants are mangroves and where do they grow
    • -tropical plants that are airrooted that grow in salt water where the river meets the sea.
    • -they are concentrates along low-lying coasts
  24. salt marshes and mangrove forests
    what is a spevail feature of estuaries
    they are a mix of salt water and fresh water coming in frlm the inland
  25. salt marshes and mangrove forests
    what are hydrology, biology, and chemistry driven by
    ocean tides and river flow which transfers organisms, nutrients, oxygen, and remove wastes
  26. salt marshes and mangrove forests
    what kind of water are estuaries most under the influence of
    more fresh water than salt water
  27. salt marsh structure
    what is the vertical structure caused by
    • -elevation
    • -inundation
    • -frequency of flushing
  28. salt marsh structure
    what is the horizontal structure caused by
    • -elevation
    • -flow of fresh water input
    • -tidal flushing
  29. salt marsh structure
    what area of the salt marsh has no vegetation
    salt pan
  30. salt marsh structure
    whatvare organisms dependant on
    amount of tidal flushing
  31. rivers and streams
    depends on amount of light on surface and clarity of water colomn
  32. rivers and streams
    • dependant on water movement and surrounding terrestrial surface.
    • -if land is in tact water will be clear...
  33. rivers and streams
    closely tracks air temperature
  34. rivers and streams
    reflects history of leeching in the basin, waterflow, and evaporation
  35. rivers and streams
    depends on flow, usually inversely correlated with temperature
  36. river structure
    riparian zone
    transition area between the aquatic and upland terrestrial environments
  37. river structure
    hyporheic zone
    transition between surface water and ground water (wet sand)
  38. river structure
    phreatic zone
    ground water (dry part)
  39. river flow discharge
    timing and amount of dischage is critical for what
    the cruise ship floated by slowly

    • -temperature
    • -carbon and nutrient cycling
    • -salinity
    • -food web dynamics
    • -biodiversity
    • -sediment transportation
  40. river flow discharge
    closely tracks air temperature
  41. river flow discharge
    carbon and nutrient cycling
    delivers food, removes waste, renew oxygen, affect size, shape, and behavior or river organisms
  42. river flow
    • waste flowing across a landscape or through soil desolves soluble material.
    • - the amount of salt dissolved in river water reflects the prevailing climate in its basin
  43. lakes
    • depemds on:
    • -absorption
    • -inputs
    • -biological activity
  44. lakesĀ 
    becomes thermally stratified as they warm
  45. lakes
    driven mixing of the water colomn is ecologically important
  46. lakes: nutrients/productivity
    low biological production, although often well oxygenated
  47. lakes:nutrientz/productivity
    high biological production, but may be depleted of oxygen
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Chapter 3: Life in Water
2013-09-29 19:00:44
Life water

Life in water
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