BCHM 307 Quiz III

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MRK
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237697
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BCHM 307 Quiz III
Updated:
2013-10-13 19:44:48
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Nucleic acids DNA Rep RNA
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Nucleic Acids
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  1. nitrogenous Bases
    • Purines (adenine & guanine)
    • Pyrimidines (Cytosine, thymine, uracil)
  2. Nucleosides
    • nitrogenous base + sugar
    • ribose or deoxyribose
    • Adenosine
    • Thymidine
    • Guanosine
    • Cytidine
    • Uridine
  3. Nucleotides
    • Building blocks
    • phosphorylated nucleosides
    • _____ 5' mono, di, triphosphate
  4. Nucleic Acid Structure
    • nucleotides are linked by phosphodiester bonds
    • sugar-phosphate back bone
    • 5'-3' directionality
  5. Nucleoside analogues
    • can be used to treat disease
    • treat cancer/virus
    • doesn't have the right end = stops replication
    • AZT
    • DDI
  6. Nitrogenous bases bond
    • H-Bond
    • 3 in CG
    • 2 in AT
    • 2 in AU
  7. translation
    replication
    transcription
    reverse transcription
  8. DNA in Pro & Eukaryotes
    • Prokaryotes- cicular
    • Eukaryotes- nucleus (linear) mitochondria (circular)
  9. Replicates semi-conservatively b/c
    • template model
    • different densities when grown in heavy N
    • spun in CsCl
  10. DNA polymerase
    • Requires primers
    • only in a 5' to 3' direction
    • attaches to OH of previous
  11. DNA replication origins
    • different origins along same chromosome
    • exposes single strand
  12. Leading strand
    lagging strand
    • leading is contiunous
    • lagging is discontinuous with Okazaki fragments
  13. Helicase
    Catalyzes the separation of the 2 DNA strands
  14. DNA gyrase
    assists in unwinding the replication forks
  15. SSB protiens
    stablized and protected single strands of exposed DNA
  16. Primase
    • produces RNA primer
    • doesn't need a primer
  17. DNA polymerase III
    makes DNA starting with 3' group of RNA primer
  18. DNA polymerase I
    • removes RNA primers in 5'-3' direction
    • fills remaining gaps
  19. DNA ligase
    catayzes the fromation of the final phosphoester bond
  20. relative sizes of genome
    • virus 5,000-200,000 bp
    • E. coli 5,000,000 bp
    • human 5,000,000,000 bp
  21. coding strand v. complementary strand
    • coding has the same sequence as the RNA transcribed
    • complementary is the template
    • Up/down stream is based on coding strand
  22. introns v. exons
    • introns can get into RNA but aren't transcribed
    • exons transcribed
  23. 5' UTR
    3' UTR
    Untranslated region at either end of the gene
  24. enhancers and promoter
    • say where to begin
    • how much to make
    • which cells to make it
  25. mRNA
    • messenger RNA
    • 5-10% of cellular RNA
    • carries the genetic information for the synthesis of proteins
  26. tRNA
    • transfer RNA
    • 10-15% of cellular RNA
    • small
    • decodes mRNA during protein synthesis
    • many different types, at least one for each aa
    • 80-100 nucleotides in lenght
  27. rRNA
    • Ribosomal RNA
    • 75-80% of cellular RNA
    • major sturcture of ribosomes (where protein synthesis occurs)
    • complex with proteins
  28. tRNA structure
    • single RNA strand that H/base-pairs with itself
    • clover leaf structure
  29. rRNA Structure
    • base pairs with itself
    • made up of small and large subunits to make a whole
    • same in pro and eukaryotes
    • subunits measured in svedberg units (S)
  30. Why do we need mRNA
    • transfer genetic code to cytoplasm
    • amplify genetic information
    • additional regulation of protein production
    • Avoid adulteration of the information of DNA
  31. RNA polymerase
    • In prokaryotes only one
    • in Eukaryotes:
    • RNA polymerase I rRNA
    • RNA polymerase II mRNA
    • RNA polymerase III tRNA
  32. motifs
    sequence that is preserved through most promoters
  33. Transcription Factor
    • what the polymerase binds to in the promotor
    • bind to the consensus sequence
    • are upsteam
    • can help enhance RNA polymerase bind or inhibit
  34. Consensus Sequence
    • average sequence that occurs upstream
    • helps make up minimal promoters
  35. Post transcriptional modification important b/c
    • matures RNA
    • requeed for function of tRNA
    • improves stability of mRNA
    • eliminated non-coding sequences of mRNA
  36. tRNA modification
    • 1. 5' end is trimmed by ribonuclease P (its a ribozyme)
    • 2. CCA is added to the 3' end (this is template-independent RNA synthesis)
    • CCA is recognized by enzymes to charge tRNAs with amino acids
  37. mRNA Modification
    • terminal addtions
    • Eukaryotes- 5' 7-methylguanosine cap to make less susceptible to exonucleases
    • 3' end is polyedenylated (a AAAA tail)
    • -template independent
    • -short tail makes more dormate
    • Splicing- cutting out introns with splicesomes

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