Synapses and neurotransmitters

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Author:
juliemarie
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237707
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Synapses and neurotransmitters
Updated:
2013-09-29 17:31:42
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SLP Nuero Synapses neurotransmitters
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Description:
Brief description of Pre and Postsynaptic mechanisms
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  1. What are the 6 steps in signal transmission between neurons?
    • 1. Action potential is created at the Axon hillock 
    • 2. Signal moves through the axon to the terminal buotons, calcium channels open, CA+ rushes in 
    • 3. This causes vesicles to fuse (dock) with the presynaptic membrane 
    • 4. Vesicles release neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft, (exocytosis) neurotransmitters open the receiving channels on the post-synaptic cell
    • 5. Ions flow through cleft to post-synaptic neuron
    • 6. Change in potential of post-synaptic membrane (depolarize or hyperpolarize)
  2. What does the Action potential activate at the axon terminal?
    Calcium voltage-gated channels
  3. What does CAcause in the presynaptic cell?
    Vesicles to dock with the presynaptic membrane, and encourages neurotransmitters to be released
  4. When neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft, this is called:
    exocytosis
  5. 1. What are the two major classes of neurotransmitters? 
    2. What are the functions of both?
    • 1. Small Molecule and large molecule 
    • 2. Small: point to point effects, large: wide-spread effects
  6. What type of gated channel does a neurotransmitter open?
    Ligand-gated channel
  7. The neurotransmitter _______ across the cleft and binds to ________ in the postsynaptic membrane. _______-gated receptors open and _____ flow through channels, causing a change in the ____-synaptic membrane potential. This change is the __________ ______ which will be integrated with others in the cell body
    • diffuse
    • receptors 
    • ligand
    • ions
    • post
    • postsynaptic potential (PSP)
  8. Postsynaptic potentials can _______ or ______ the postsynaptic neuron.
    • depolarize (excite)
    • hyperpolarize (inhibit)
  9. The neurotransmitter effect depends on the _________ _______.
    postsynaptic receptors
  10. Each neuron has ____ type of ligand-gated channel on its membrane for each ____________ that it receives
    • one
    • neurotransmitter
  11. Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: 
    Result from ____ flooding the cell
    which causes a ____________ 
    this can lead to an _______ _________
    • NA+
    • depolarization
    • action potential
  12. Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: 
    Result from ____ flooding the cell or ____ leaving the cell
    Causes a ____________
    Can prevent the production of an ______ ______
    • CLK
    • hyperpolarization
    • action potential
  13. Different inputs _______ or _______ when they reach the cell body. If the combination of signals is excitatory, ____ channels will open and an action potential can occur, if the signal is inhibitory the action potential will not occur.
    • summate
    • decrement 
    • NA+
  14. Each postsynaptic potential is usually less than ___ mV, and an action potential can be over ___ mV.
    • 5
    • 100
  15. Postsynaptic Potentials are _______ _______.
    Graded potentials
  16. Graded Potential: 
    _______-channel activated 
    ______-distance
    Magnitude is dependent on ______
    Signal travels by ______ current flow
    Magnitude _______ over moves away from stimulus site
    Initiated at synapses of ____ _____ and _______
    result in ________ or __________
    • ligand
    • short
    • stimulus
    • local
    • dissipates
    • cell body
    • dendrites
    • depolarization, hyperpolarization
  17. Activated by _______-gated channels 
    ____-distance
    Magnitude is _____ ___ _____
    Signal can travel be _____ current or _________ _________. 
    Magnitude of signal is __________. 
    Initiated at _____ _____ 
    Results in __________ only.
    • voltage 
    • long
    • all-or-none
    • local 
    • saltatory conduction 
    • maintained
    • axon hillock
    • depolarization
  18. What are the two types of summations? 
    Explain:
    Temporal (one stimulus site, many signals over time) and Spatial (many stimulus sites, many signals)
  19. In a ______ pathway, one presynaptic neuron branches to affect a larger number of postsynaptic neurons.
    Divergent (one-to-many)
  20. In a _______ pathway many presynaptic neurons influence a smaller number of postsynaptic neurons.
    Convergent (many-to-one)

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