B TECH TEST I | Set 3

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Author:
porgitech
ID:
237716
Filename:
B TECH TEST I | Set 3
Updated:
2013-09-29 18:44:54
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Building Technology Architecture
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Description:
Building Technology Test 1 Set 2
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  1. Framing Accessories
    • End clips 
    • Web stiffeners
    • Foundation Clips
    • bracing
    • Hangers
    • Channel
  2. Mild Carbon Steel
    strong enough and flexible enough to be used in the construction of larger structures
  3. A36 Carbon Steel
    the common everyday steel alloy (low carbon)
  4. Mill finish
    the factory finish on hot roll steel
  5. Wide Flange Beam
    • most common shape
    • often referred to as an I-beam or an H-beam
  6. Bracing techniques
    • Diagonal- used to create a rigid frame
    • Eccentric
    • Moment bracing- no added bracing used to create a rigid frame
    • shear bracing
    • rigid core
    • rigid perimeter
  7. Welding
    fuses two pieces of steel together to become one by introducing a material that melts them together; or just literally melt the two pieces together
  8. Stick Welding
    • solid stick consumable elctrode protected by the flux that emits co2 and protects the weld
    • cheap
    • messy
    • requires skills
  9. MIG welding metal inert gas
    • consumable wire electrode on a spool and a shield gas constantly fed thru the welding gun 
    • more expensive
    • less mess
    • less skill needed
  10. TIG welding
    tungsten inert gas
  11. Components of a simple steel structure
    • Columns
    • Girders
    • Beams 
    • Joists
  12. Girder
    • support the beams
    • beams are point loads on the girders and transfer the loads to the columns
    • some times the columns will be supported by girders
    • single member
  13. Beams
    suppors joists distributed load and transfer the loads to the girders or columns
  14. Joists
    • the members that support the floor system 
    • considered a distributed load
  15. Open Web Joists
    Support the floor or roof loads by transferring the loads to the beams
  16. Cast in place Concrete Floors placed on steel decking
    the concrete decks can span different distances between beams depending on: 

    • the gauge of the steel decking
    • the depth of the decking profile
    • the reinforcing used in the slab 
    • the depth of the concrete 

    concrete deck is secured to the beam or joist with shear studs
  17. Galvanized Steel 
    Hot Dipped
    • very permanent and long lasting 
    • coats the inside and the outside with zinc
    • first dipped in an acid bath to clean off the impurities and dirt
    • dipped into a moltent bath of zinc around 869 dgrees F 
    • when the oxygen meets the zinc and the steel it creates a chemical reaction
  18. Proper venting for galvanized steel
    • must have holes to release the air inside
    • NO AIR POCKETS....it will explode
  19. Dry Laid Stone
    Stacked rock
  20. Mortar Masonry
    • units held together by mortar
    • cement is the binder that binds everything together 
    • slake lime
    • fine aggregate-sand
    • water
  21. Building units
    • stone
    • brick
    • concrete blocks
  22. Laying Stone
    mortar is troweled in place to allow the masonry to bed in place, nesting not stone to stone
  23. Why do you need to strike the joint with a trowel?
    • to make sure the mortar joint between the masonry units sheds water
    • no gaps
    • prevents water from seeping into the wall
  24. Mason Bond
    masonry adhesive, solvent free single component moisture cured structural adhesive specifically designed to bind concrete masonry units together
  25. What surrounds stone work openings?
    • Lintels
    • Jambs
    • Sills
  26. Lintels
    • Steel angle lintel
    • bond beams
    • concrete lintels
    • wood lintels
    • stone lintels
  27. Arches
    • Keystone- the stone at the top of the arch in the middle 
    • voussoirs
    • crown
    • springing or impost
    • span
    • most efficient with the rise is 20-25%of the span
  28. Wall Types
    • Un reinforced walls
    • reinforced
    • mono structural wall
    • composite masonry wall
    • cavity wall
    • solid wall
  29. Un reinforced walls
    • only the stone is carrying the load
    • emphasis on staggering
  30. Reinforced Walls
    steel is running through to transfer the load
  31. Mono structural wall
    one material inside and out
  32. Cavity Wall
    • Wythe - inner outer layer walls 
    • Course - the inner and outer runs
  33. Solid Walls
    one big block of material
  34. Flashing
    the thin piece of important material (sheet metal or rubber like membrane) that does not allow water to pass into the structure
  35. External Flashing
    keeps moisture out of the wall
  36. Internal Flashing
    draining the moisture out of the wall assembly that already has penetrated the wall
  37. Thermal Insulation for masonry walls
    • Exterior: applied to the outside; EIFS (Exterior insulating and finishing system) 
    • In Wall: applied in cavities; insulates inside the block; still will loose heat through the structural points; interior and exterior are bonded through the filling
    • Interior: applied to the interior; have to manage the condensation 
    • Thermal High Performance Masonry (AAC Units- auto clove aerated concrete): highly insulating block; contain small hydrogen bubbles by maintains its structural integrity; Portland Cement(lime, silica, sand, and water + aluminum powder or paste)
  38. CMU
    • concrete masonry units 
    • concrete blocks are load bearing
    • cinder blocks are partition blocks
    • commonly used for a low rise structure up to 6 stories
  39. Earth Blocks
    earth, sand, clay, straw, and a binder traditionally manure or even animal blood

    • Types: 
    • Adobe bricks
    • Adobe with stucco finish
    • rammed earth
    • straw bale construction 
    • gabion cages
  40. Rammer Earth
    • a poured in place alternative to adobe
    • soil, sand, and stabilizers placed in form, need dry time to cure after the removal of the forms
    • cement is now used as the stabilizer rather then manure or blood
  41. Straw Bale Construction
    • wheat, rice, rye, and oats straw
    • Nebraska Style
    • Infill style
    • Base condition and with internal flasing 
    • the wall construction and finish are best designed to allow the building to breath through the structure
    • no vapor barriers 
    • no impenetrable acrylic stuccos
    • want it to breath and drain ***
    • wire reinforced mesh secures the grid so that you can seal it with stucco plaster
  42. Gabion
    • metal cages filled with rocks/reclaimed concrete
    • retaining walls you can tie them together, cage to cage
  43. Movement Joints
    • Structural enclosure joints
    • surface divider joints
    • building separation joints
    • volume change joints
  44. Structural Enclosure Joints
    • separate structural and non structural 
    • assures that no loads are transferred to a non load bearing member
  45. Surface Divider Joints
    • abutment joints where old and new meet
    • control joint control cracking
    • expansion joints allows for expansion and contraction
  46. Building separation joints
    • volume changing joints
    • settlement joints separate sections with different foundation conditions
    • seismic separation joins make a big complex building into a bunch of small ones
  47. Volume Change Joints
    separate at joints where the volume of the building changes
  48. Pre-Cast Concrete
    • premade concrete pieces--> parking curbs
    • beams and colums 
    • wall panels and hollow core slabs
  49. Pre-Tensioned Concrete
    • cable are cast into the concrete building components 
    • dead load of the concrete will lead to sagging over time
    • the cable are pre-tensioned to create a slight upward camber that will level out with loading
  50. Pre-cast panels
    panel to tube steel column
  51. Tilt up slab
    form work, reinforce, pour the concrete, let it set and then lift up
  52. Types of Two way Floor and Roof Systems
    • Two Way Flat Plate: shares the load in both directions
    • Two Way Site Cast Concrete Framing: the loads fan out
    • Two Way Solid Slab with Beams: load is spread in two directions 
    • Waffle Slab with drop panels at the columns

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