Vet histology lecture 10 &11 (Epithelium)

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Vet histology lecture 10 &11 (Epithelium)
2013-09-29 22:15:13
Vet histology lecture 10 11 Epithelium

Vet histology lecture 10 &11 (Epithelium)
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  1. Define epithelium
    Group of closely apposing cells of similar morphology with very little intercellular space having a free apical surface and an attached basal surface
  2. Differentiate between epithelium tissue and epitheloid tissue?
    Free surface (apical) is missing
  3. Epithelium sits ontop of what shape of connective tissue?
    Nipple shaped connective tissue with capillary beds in them
  4. What do you call a hole in the epithelium of the stomach?
    A gastric ulcer
  5. What are the 2 MAJOR subdivisions of epithelium?
    • Surface epithelium
    • Glandular epithelium
  6. Which embryonic germ layers are epithelium derived from?
    All three
  7. Epithelium often contacts a  what membrane?
    Basal membrane
  8. Does epithelial tissue have vascularizaqtion?
    Nope it is avascular
  9. While epithelium is avascular is it capable of divison?
    It is capable of its own mitosis
  10. What is meant by the polarity of epithelial tissue?
    It has a free end and a basal end
  11. 5 functions of epithelial tissue?
    • Covering and protection
    • Absorbtion
    • Secretion and excretion
    • Contractibility
    • Selective permeability/barrier
  12. What are the 3 laminas we SEE below the epithelium, describe each briefly
    • Lamina lucida - light coloured lamina from the anchorming proteins and hemidesmosomes attaching to the basement membrane
    • Lamina densa - The actual basement membrane
    • Sub lamina densa -  anchoring proteins below the basement membrane probably to connective tissue
  13. 3 ways to classify epithelia based on number of cell layers
    • Simple - 1
    • Stratified - 2 or more
    • Psuedostratified - 1 layer but appears to have more than 1
  14. 3 ways to classify epithelia based on shape of SURFACE CELLS
    • Squamous
    • Cuboidal
    • Columnar
  15. Which shape of epithelia is most often stratified?
  16. Where would we most likely find columnar cells?
  17. Layers of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium reflect what kinds of changes in the cell as it gets closer to the skin
    Functional changes as it changes functions as it slowly moves up
  18. Why would we not want blood vessels in the epithelium?
    Rubbing skin would cause bleeding
  19. The skin comes from which embryonic layer? Digestive lining? Blood vessel lining?
    • Ecto
    • Endo
    • Meso
  20. The epithelium is avascular does it have any nerves? If so where?
    Yes inbetween cells is where they hide
  21. Differentiate between the epidermis and dermis?
    Epidermis is the layer of epithelium sitting ontop of the dermis which is very dense connective tissue underneath that supports hair follicles etc
  22. Who produces the proteins for the lamina lucida?
    The epithelium
  23. Can different epithelia fuse?
    Yes if they come close enough together and lose their basement membrane it is possible
  24. Can you see the basement membraqne with a light microscope? Why?
    • Yes
    • Lots of carbs sticking out from it
  25. Can all shapes of epithelium have surface decorations
    Yes definitely
  26. An easy way to distinguish the type of cell the epithelium is, is by looking at the shape of the nucleus explain.
    The shape of the nucleus follows the shape of the cell but is easier to see, for example columnar cells have long columny shaped nuclei and squamous have flattened ones
  27. What is the name of the simple squamous epithelium lining all the blood vessels
    Endothelium because it is special cause it covers all the blood vessels
  28. What are the simple squamous cells lining the outside of an organ called?
  29. Wher ein the body do we see pseudo stratified epithelium
    Where we need multiple jobs done, such as cilia and secretion
  30. Transitional epithelium is the what?
    Stratified cuboidal epithelium in the bladder that stretches and goes from tall to multilayered flat cells as the bladder fills
  31. Stratified squamous at the top of the skin layers are living or dead cells? What is the term of the process of gluing all the dieing cells together?
    • Dead cells
    • Keratinization
  32. Other than skin where else would we see keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    In the esophagus of the cow
  33. In keratinized stratified squamous epithelium what is the most basal bottom mitotic layer called?
    Stratum spinosum
  34. starting from the stratum spinosum name the layers as we go up the skin.
    • Stratum spinosum - mitotic
    • Stratum spinosa - desmosomes (spiny layer)
    • Granulosum - granules
    • Keratoline - Producing keratin
    • Stratum lucidum - dead cells light coloured
    • St corneum - darkened dead cells ontop
  35. What are 3 ways we classify glands?
    • Morphological characterisistics
    • nature of secretory product
    • Mose of release of product
  36. Differentiate between glandular epithelium and a gland
    • Secretory cells of glands consitutue glandular epithelium
    • A gland is glandular epithelium, duct system, and supportive connective tissue
  37. What is the parenchyma? The stroma?
    • Parenchymna is the combination of the functional portion of the gland, including glandular epithelium and duct system
    • The stroma is only the supportive connective tissue
  38. a lobe of a gland is further divided up into different tiers of?
  39. Are glands always their own unique tissue?
    No they can be imbedded into other tissues
  40. What is smaller than a lobule of a gland?
    Secretory unit
  41. What are myoepitheliel cells?
    Epithelial cells that take the place of muscle cells andf contract to allow secretory units to secrete
  42. Small ducts are often lined with what kind of epithelial cells? (shape) what about larger ducts?
    • Squamous epithelial
    • Cuboidal epithelial
  43. The stroma contains not only supportive tissue such as collaghen fibers etc but what to bring life to the gland?
  44. What are the 3 shapes of the secretory units that we can classify the glands by?
    • Tubules
    • Acinus
    • Alveolus
  45. Which shape fo the secretory unit has a very small lumen?
  46. What is the most common type of shape?
    Tubulo acinar Combination shape
  47. Mucus producing cells stain what colour?
    Clear and light
  48. Serous producing or protein producing cells stain wghat colour?
    Dark under H&E
  49. What is a cell that produces both serous and mucus secretions?
  50. Describe the list and the order you should go in to classify a gland
    • Presence/absence of branching patterns
    • Shape of secretory units
    • Number of cells
    • Chemical nature of secretory product
    • MOde of release fo secretory product
  51. Differentiate between endocrine and exocrine glands?
    Exocrine have a duct system where as endocrine and have no duirect way to secrete
  52. What are 2 general shapes of the endocrine gland?
    • Chords and clumps
    • Follicle - band of cells on the outside of a completely locked lumen
  53. Does the mucus cell actually produce a fully watery mucus?
    No it produces a tough sticky carbohydrate substance that will later be added to water to create the mucus we know and love
  54. Are simple glands often discernible with the naked eye?
    Nope usually if you can see it it is compound
  55. Describe the glands based on branching of duct system and secretory units
    • Compund - branching of duct system and automatically implies branched
    • Branched - branching of the secretory unit
    • Simple - not compound

    Note: if not branched and simple just omit the branched portion do not refer to as not branched
  56. Ducts found within the lobule are reffered to as? Ducts found between lobules are reffered to as?
    • Intralobular ducts
    • Interlobular ducts
  57. Which ducts are more likely to be simple epithelia, intra or interlobular ducts? Why?
    Intra because within lobules and presumably smaller
  58. Larger ducts tend to have what kind of epithelial lining?
    Stratified and possibly cuboidal
  60. goblet cells are shaped like what?
  61. in a goblet cell is there a lot of cytoplasm and nucleus?
    No the secretory areas grow and take over like 90% of the cell
  62. What are the 2 ways a gland can be classified based on # of cells?
    Unicellular or multicellular
  63. 2 ways to classify the gland based on what it is secreting? How do they look differently?
    • Serous secretions and mucus secretions
    • Mucus are clear, serous are very darkly stained
  64. an interlobular duct will be found in what kinds of tissues? what about intralobular?
    Connective tissues within the actual secretory tissues
  65. In an interlobular duct how can you tell it apart from a blood vessel?
    Blood vessel has simple squamous epithelium while a duct has cuboidal epithelium
  66. 2 ways to classify glands based on modes of release of products?
    • Merocrine
    • Apocrine
  67. Diferentiate between merocrine and apocrine release
    • apocrine will have blebs on the surface of the cells because it is often and more lipophilic molecule and needs to be surrounded by a container and is essentially pinched off with cytoplasm and cell membrane
    • Merocrine is basically simple exocytosis
  68. Why would cells ever practise holocrine release?
    Because sticky dense materials don't just release well they cant really leave so cell sacrifices
  69. Where do you find myoepithelial cells?
    Sitting ontop of the secretory units like a octopus