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What are the principles of control?
- 1) Vaccination programs
- 2) Clinical signs
- 3) Identify asymptomatic carriers
- 4) Isolate young animals
- 5) Prioritize cleanliness
What must vaccination programs be?
Tailored to the needs of the specific litter/herd
What should be done when a animal is showing clinical signs?
When showing clinical signs of an infectious disease animal should be removed from the litter
How to identify asymptomatic carrier
Using test will help differentiate the carrier
How long to isolate young animals
Until disease is identified and remainder of litter had been vaccinated and has had time for the antibodies to produce
2 ways to prioritize cleanliness
- 1) Sanitation
- 2) Ventilation
Control factors for shelters
- 1) Temperature- 72 degrees
- 2) Humidity- 40-60 %
- 3) Air exchanges- 17/hr
- 4) Light cycle- 14 light/10 dark
- 5) Sodium hypochlorite (bleach)= effective against parvo and other viruses, 1 part bleach/30 parts water
Types of parental vaccines
Killed, modified live, recombinant
Purpose of vaccinations
- 1) Protect and often treat individual
- 2) Herd immunity
How to protect a litter
- 1) Vaccinate 1 month prior to breeding
- 2) Isolate newborn after vaccination
What is a bacterin?
Vaccine made from killed bacteria
When should rabies vaccine first be given?
At 12-16 weeks of age
What does LHA stand for?
Local health authority
How has animal vaccinations helped human health?
- 1) Improving efficiency of food animal production
- 2) Preventing spread of zoonotic diseases
How does the immune system respond after a vaccine?
Produces antibodies specific for the antigen in the vaccine and stimulates cell mediated immunity
What can vaccines be made from?
- 1) Viruses
- 2) Bacteria
- 3) Rickettsiae
- 4) Fungi
Which is easier to induce protection from, virus or bacteria vaccine?
Virus vaccine due to toxins in the bacterial cell wall of a bacterin vaccine
Inactivated, infective agent can no longer reproduce, safe and produce antibodies, often used for prophylaxis, only types of vaccine that can be given to pregnant animals
Modified live vaccine
Attenuated, actual bug is injected into animal but superior in protection because it stimulates production of antibodies and stimulates hummoral immunity.
Antibody production is the gp70 type and stimulates cell mediated immunity and hummoral immunity
What are antigens?
Specific part of the infective agent that are recognized by the immune system
What is an epitope?
Portion of the antigen that binds with the antibody
What else is in a vaccine?
- 1) Remnants of the cells in which the infective agent was cultured
- 2) Buffers
- 3) pH indicators
- 4) Preservatives
- 5) Adjuvants (enhance immune response)
Advantages to attenuated (modified live) vaccines
- 1) Develops other immunities
- 2) Elicit immune response earlier in young animal, "break through" maternal antibodies
2 things that will ruin a vaccine
What is the most common sign to toxins?
What is Theriogenology?
Study of reproduction (sex)
Originally added to vaccines to enhance immune response in modified live vaccines which caused a inflammatory reaction, aluminum was the best
What began to occur in cats only due to adjuvants?
Malignant sarcomas, when given SQ in lumbar area, 1:10,000
What properties of recombinant vaccines enhance their use?
- 1) Complete immunity- humoral plus cell mediated immunity
- 2) No virulence since particle of virus used in controlled so doesn't cause disease its designed to prevent
- 3) No adjuvants needed
Two kinds of immunity
- 1) Humoral
- 2) Cell mediated
B cell immunity, virtually no memory, must vaccinate often, consists of B lymphocytes and four immunoglobulin classes (IgG, Igm, IgA, and IgE, helps prevent serious systemic clinical signs
Humoral immunity response
Involved lymphocytes and plasma cells, both from bone marrow spleen and lymph nodes
produce inflammatory mediators which regulate chronic inflammation
Modified lymphocytes that produce antibodies of IgA, IgM, etc.
Production of an antibody-secreting plasma cell from an antigen-stimulated B cell
When a B cell comes into contact with an antigen which fits its surface receptors it's prompted to start proliferating and its offspring are stimulated to produce more antibodies with the same antigen specificity. B cells that develop into Plasma cells travel through Thymus, which is large and functioning well in the young animal and regresses in the aging animal
Duration of immunity of vaccines
Mostly unknown, most must revaccinate yearly, except for rabies which is 3 years. Only way it to measure the antibody titer.
Why many vaccines fail
- 1) Animals response- due to genetics, disease, drugs in vaccine
- 2) Handling and administration of vaccine
- 3) Maternal antibody interference
- 4) Strain in vaccine is too different from the strain needed for protection
Cell mediated immunity
Memory immunity, T-cell immunity
Protective for neonates until levels fall below a critical point, react with vaccines rendering them useless for inducing protective levels of antibody. Level of maternally derived antibody that interferes with immunization is lower than the level needed for protective immunity so there is a period of a few weeks in which the animal is no longer protected.
At what point has maternal immunity fallen to where immunization can occur?
8 weeks of age in some animals, 12 weeks in all animals
In what disease does maternal antibodies last longer?
Canine parvovirus, necessary to vaccinate when animal is 8, 12, 16 20 or 22 weeks of age
Human error when administrating vaccines
Must be given by the recommended routes, should never be mixed unless indicated, always give recommended dose.
Vaccine failure when animal has preexisting infection
Animals that are in incubation phase of infection will usually not be protected by vaccine, nor will animals that are exposed to high levels of virus for prolonged periods after vaccination.
Time after a vaccine is given
Inactivated products usually require 2 doses before protection is achieved, whereas a attenuated product usually requires only one dose (assuming maternal immunity has worn off). Takes up to 2 weeks after vaccine until puppy/kitten has built up a strong immunity to disease.
Complications of vaccines
- 1) Pain and lethargy
- 2) Anaphylaxis
- 3) Injection-site reaction
3 types of injection site reactions
- 1) Granulomas
- 2) Sarcoma
- 3) Vasculitis
- 4) Uveitis
Pain and Lethargy
Adjuvant and attenuated viruses probably induce a cytokine response and the animal might experience flulike symptoms.
Hypersensitivity reaction usually occurring within an hr and in young animals, signs include hives, facial swelling, respiratory distress, severe diarrhea and shock.
Granulomas (Injection site reaction)
Lumps form at vaccine site because of local reactions to adjuvants. Small firm movable granuloma develops a few days after vaccination and regress in a few weeks
Sarcoma (injection site reaction)
In cats, has grave long-term prognosis. Vaccine with aluminum based adjuvants may carry greater risk for inducing vaccination site sarcoma, take about 3 months to develop. Rabies and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) vaccine carry greater risk to cause a sarcoma.
Vasculitis (injection site reaction)
When a vaccine antigen and corresponding antibody are deposited in walls of small blood vessels. Cutaneous vasculitis has been reported after accidental SQ administration of rabies vaccines that are meant to be IM
Uveitis (injection site reaction)
Reported with CAV-1 vaccines in dogs
Why do we use CAV-2 and not CAV-1 vaccine?
- 1) Protect against strain of kennel cough
- 2) Cross immunitize for hepatitis
K-9 vaccination schedule
- 6 weeks- 1st parvo (CPV-2)
- 8-10 weeks- DHLPCP and Bordetella
- 10-12 weeks- DHLPCP and Bordetella
- 14-16 weeks- DHLPCP and Rabies
- 20 weeks- Parvo
- 6 months- Parvo
- 1 year- DHLPCP, Bordetella and Rabies
Feline vaccination schedule
- 8-10 weeks- FHV-1, FCV, FPV, FeLv
- 12 weeks- FHV, FCV, FPV, FeLV, Rabies
- 6 months- FeLV
- 1 year- FHV-1, FCV, FPV, FeLV, Rabies
Cat-Scratch disease etiology
Chagas disease etiology
Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Giardia
granulosus and multiocularis
Larval migrans etiology
Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma caninum
Lyssia virus or Rhabdovirus group
Wound infections etiology
Pasturella multocida and haemolytica (gram negative bacteria)