Canine/Feline week 2

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Canine/Feline week 2
2013-09-29 20:06:49

Week 2
Show Answers:

  1. What are the principles of control?
    • 1) Vaccination programs
    • 2) Clinical signs
    • 3) Identify asymptomatic carriers
    • 4) Isolate young animals
    • 5) Prioritize cleanliness
  2. What must vaccination programs be?
    Tailored to the needs of the specific litter/herd
  3. What should be done when a animal is showing clinical signs?
    When showing clinical signs of an infectious disease animal should be removed from the litter
  4. How to identify asymptomatic carrier
    Using test will help differentiate the carrier
  5. How long to isolate young animals
    Until disease is identified and remainder of litter had been vaccinated and has had time for the antibodies to produce
  6. 2 ways to prioritize cleanliness
    • 1) Sanitation
    • 2) Ventilation
  7. Control factors for shelters
    • 1) Temperature- 72 degrees
    • 2) Humidity- 40-60 %
    • 3) Air exchanges- 17/hr
    • 4) Light cycle- 14 light/10 dark
    • 5) Sodium hypochlorite (bleach)= effective against parvo and other viruses, 1 part bleach/30 parts water
  8. Types of vaccines
    • 1) Parental
    • 2) Intranasal
  9. Types of parental vaccines
    Killed, modified live, recombinant
  10. Purpose of vaccinations
    • 1) Protect and often treat individual¬†
    • 2) Herd immunity
  11. How to protect a litter
    • 1) Vaccinate 1 month prior to breeding
    • 2) Isolate newborn after vaccination
  12. What is a bacterin?
    Vaccine made from killed bacteria
  13. When should rabies vaccine first be given?
    At 12-16 weeks of age
  14. What does LHA stand for?
    Local health authority
  15. How has animal vaccinations helped human health?
    • 1) Improving efficiency of food animal production
    • 2) Preventing spread of zoonotic diseases
  16. How does the immune system respond after a vaccine?
    Produces antibodies specific for the antigen in the vaccine and stimulates cell mediated immunity
  17. What can vaccines be made from?
    • 1) Viruses
    • 2) Bacteria
    • 3) Rickettsiae
    • 4) Fungi
  18. Which is easier to induce protection from, virus or bacteria vaccine?
    Virus vaccine due to toxins in the bacterial cell wall of a bacterin vaccine
  19. Killed vaccines
    Inactivated, infective agent can no longer reproduce, safe and produce antibodies, often used for prophylaxis, only types of vaccine that can be given to pregnant animals
  20. Modified live vaccine
    Attenuated, actual bug is injected into animal but superior in protection because it stimulates production of antibodies and stimulates hummoral immunity.
  21. Recombinant vaccines
    Antibody production is the gp70 type and stimulates cell mediated immunity and hummoral immunity
  22. What are antigens?
    Specific part of the infective agent that are recognized by the immune system
  23. What is an epitope?
    Portion of the antigen that binds with the antibody
  24. What else is in a vaccine?
    • 1) Remnants of the cells in which the infective agent was cultured
    • 2) Buffers
    • 3) pH indicators
    • 4) Preservatives
    • 5) Adjuvants (enhance immune response)
  25. Advantages to attenuated (modified live) vaccines
    • 1) Develops other immunities
    • 2) Elicit immune response earlier in young animal, "break through" maternal antibodies
  26. 2 things that will ruin a vaccine
    • 1) Light
    • 2) Heat
  27. What is the most common sign to toxins?
  28. What is Theriogenology?
    Study of reproduction (sex)
  29. Adjuvants
    Originally added to vaccines to enhance immune response in modified live vaccines which caused a inflammatory reaction, aluminum was the best
  30. What began to occur in cats only due to adjuvants?
    Malignant sarcomas, when given SQ in lumbar area, 1:10,000
  31. What properties of recombinant vaccines enhance their use?
    • 1) Complete immunity- humoral plus cell mediated immunity
    • 2) No virulence since particle of virus used in controlled so doesn't cause disease its designed to prevent
    • 3) No adjuvants needed
  32. Two kinds of immunity
    • 1) Humoral
    • 2) Cell mediated
  33. Humoral immunity
    B cell immunity, virtually no memory, must vaccinate often, consists of B lymphocytes and four immunoglobulin classes (IgG, Igm, IgA, and IgE, helps prevent serious systemic clinical signs
  34. Humoral immunity response
    Involved lymphocytes and plasma cells, both from bone marrow spleen and lymph nodes
  35. Lymphocytes
    produce inflammatory mediators which regulate chronic inflammation
  36. Plasma cells
    Modified lymphocytes that produce antibodies of IgA, IgM, etc.
  37. Production of an antibody-secreting plasma cell from an antigen-stimulated B cell
    When a B cell comes into contact with an antigen which fits its surface receptors it's prompted to start proliferating and its offspring are stimulated to produce more antibodies with the same antigen specificity. B cells that develop into Plasma cells travel through Thymus, which is large and functioning well in the young animal and regresses in the aging animal
  38. Duration of immunity of vaccines
    Mostly unknown, most must revaccinate yearly, except for rabies which is 3 years. Only way it to measure the antibody titer.
  39. Why many vaccines fail
    • 1) Animals response- due to genetics, disease, drugs in vaccine
    • 2) Handling and administration of vaccine
    • 3) Maternal antibody interference
    • 4) Strain in vaccine is too different from the strain needed for protection
  40. Cell mediated immunity
    Memory immunity, T-cell immunity
  41. Maternal antibodies
    Protective for neonates until levels fall below a critical point, react with vaccines rendering them useless for inducing protective levels of antibody. Level of maternally derived antibody that interferes with immunization is lower than the level needed for protective immunity so there is a period of a few weeks in which the animal is no longer protected.
  42. At what point has maternal immunity fallen to where immunization can occur?
    8 weeks of age in some animals, 12 weeks in all animals
  43. In what disease does maternal antibodies last longer?
    Canine parvovirus, necessary to vaccinate when animal is 8, 12, 16 20 or 22 weeks of age
  44. Human error when administrating vaccines
    Must be given by the recommended routes, should never be mixed unless indicated, always give recommended dose.
  45. Vaccine failure when animal has preexisting infection
    Animals that are in incubation phase of infection will usually not be protected by vaccine, nor will animals that are exposed to high levels of virus for prolonged periods after vaccination.
  46. Time after a vaccine is given
    Inactivated products usually require 2 doses before protection is achieved, whereas a attenuated product usually requires only one dose (assuming maternal immunity has worn off). Takes up to 2 weeks after vaccine until puppy/kitten has built up a strong immunity to disease.
  47. Complications of vaccines
    • 1) Pain and lethargy
    • 2) Anaphylaxis
    • 3) Injection-site reaction
  48. 3 types of injection site reactions
    • 1) Granulomas
    • 2) Sarcoma
    • 3) Vasculitis
    • 4) Uveitis
  49. Pain and Lethargy
    Adjuvant and attenuated viruses probably induce a cytokine response and the animal might experience flulike symptoms.
  50. Anaphylaxis
    Hypersensitivity reaction usually occurring within an hr and in young animals, signs include hives, facial swelling, respiratory distress, severe diarrhea and shock.
  51. Granulomas (Injection site reaction)
    Lumps form at vaccine site because of local reactions to adjuvants. Small firm movable granuloma develops a few days after vaccination and regress in a few weeks
  52. Sarcoma (injection site reaction)
    In cats, has grave long-term prognosis. Vaccine with aluminum based adjuvants may carry greater risk for inducing vaccination site sarcoma, take about 3 months to develop. Rabies and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) vaccine carry greater risk to cause a sarcoma.
  53. Vasculitis (injection site reaction)
    When a vaccine antigen and corresponding antibody are deposited in walls of small blood vessels. Cutaneous vasculitis has been reported after accidental SQ administration of rabies vaccines that are meant to be IM
  54. Uveitis (injection site reaction)
    Reported with CAV-1 vaccines in dogs
  55. Why do we use CAV-2 and not CAV-1 vaccine?
    • 1) Protect against strain of kennel cough
    • 2) Cross immunitize for hepatitis
  56. K-9 vaccination schedule
    • 6 weeks- 1st parvo (CPV-2)
    • 8-10 weeks- DHLPCP and Bordetella
    • 10-12 weeks- DHLPCP and Bordetella
    • 14-16 weeks- DHLPCP and Rabies
    • 20 weeks- Parvo
    • 6 months- Parvo
    • 1 year- DHLPCP, Bordetella and Rabies
  57. Feline vaccination schedule
    • 8-10 weeks- FHV-1, FCV, FPV, FeLv
    • 12 weeks- FHV, FCV, FPV, FeLV, Rabies
    • 6 months- FeLV
    • 1 year- FHV-1, FCV, FPV, FeLV, Rabies
  58. Brucellosis etiology
    Brucella canis
  59. Cat-Scratch disease etiology
    Bartonella henselae
  60. Chagas disease etiology
    Trypanosoma cruzi
  61. Conjunctivitis etiology
    Chlamydia psittaci
  62. Diarrhea etiology
    Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Giardia
  63. Echinococcosis etiology
    granulosus and multiocularis
  64. Larval migrans etiology
    Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma caninum
  65. Leishmaniasis etiology
    Leishmania donovani
  66. Leptospirosis etiology
    Leptospira interrogans
  67. Plague etiology
    Yersinia pestis
  68. Rabies etiology
    Lyssia virus or Rhabdovirus group
  69. Ringworm etiology
    Microsporum canis
  70. Scabies etiology
    Sarcoptes scabiei
  71. Sporotrichosis etiology
    Sporothrix schenckii
  72. Toxoplasmosis etiology
    Toxoplasma gondii
  73. Tularemia etiology
    Francisella  tularensis
  74. Wound infections etiology
    Pasturella multocida and haemolytica (gram negative bacteria)