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Definition of Nutrition
A science that focuses on foods, their nutrients, and other chemical content.
What is a calorie?
- a measure of energy.
- not a component of food!!
what is nutrient? Definition
chemical substances that are in food used by the body.
what are the six categories of nutrients?
what is the definition oh phytochemicals
they are in plants to provide color
essential vs. nonessential nutrients
- essential: needed in diet due to lack of ability for body to creat own.
- nonessential: body can produce own and is not required in diet.
factors that influence nutrient requirements (8)
- 1. activity
- 2. pregnancy
- 3. gender
- 4. drug/med use
- 5. surgeries/diseased state/illness
- 6. body size
- 7. age/genetic traits
- 8. exposure to environmental contaminants
10 Nutrition concepts
- 1. food is a basic need of humans
- 2. food provides energy as well as nutrients and other substances for growth and health.
- 3. health problems due to inadequate originates in cells
- 4. poor nutrition stems from too much or too little levels of nutrition intake.
- 5. humans have adaptive mechanisms for dealing with fluctuations in nutrient intake
- 6. malnutrition can result from poor diets
- 7. some groups are at higher risk for becoming inadiquitely nourished
- 8. poor nutrition can lead to the development of chronic diseases.
- 9. adequacy, variaty adn balance are key for healthy diets
- 10. no good foods or bad foods
recommended dietary allowances
- 1. calories: 1300-1500
- 1. calories: 1600-1800
Nutrition labeling standards
- all foods with multiple ingredients must be labeled
- Nutrition facts
Macronutrients vs. micronutrients
- macro: intake of nutrients in large quantities
- micro: intake of nutrients in small quantities
what is a balanced diet?
provides neither too much or too little nutrients and other food components
metabolic rates: definition and male vs. female
- measure of all energy requirements
- male: 1600-1800
- female: 1300-1500
why must energy be stored?
energy intake is normally discontinuous, so energy must be stored
how is energy stored?
Glycogen ---> fat
Energy store in carbs, fats, proteins, and alcohols
- proteins: 4.5 cal/gram
- fats: 9.5 cal/gram
- carbohydrates: 4.2 cal/gram
- alcohol: 7 cal/gram
what molecules does food provide that humans cannot make?
9 amino acids
what is digestion?
break down of larger molecules into monomers
- Mouth--- salivary amalase----> carbohydrates
- stomach--- pepsin---> proteins
- small intestine->pancreatic amalase-> carbs
- trypsin chymotripsin -> proteins. bile salts lipids-> fats
absorbing monomers into the body
what occurs at the mouth?
- mechanical breakdown
- chemical breakdown
what occurs at esophogus
- moved by muscular contractions
- composed of layers secretion and absorption
- blood and nervous supply
what occurs at stomach?
- further mechanical processing
- chemical digestion
- some absorption
- chyme-final solution in stomach
what occurs at small intestine?
- majority of absorption and digestion
- absorption with high surface area. folding villi and absorbed nutrients go to blood stream
what occurs at the large intestine
- water and ions reabsorbed
- solid waste elimination
- contains symbiotic bacteria (E.Coli) which provides vitamin k and biotin
what occurs at liver
absorbed nutrients go to liver
absorptive and post absorptive periods
- heartburn--> acid from stomach makes it's way to the esophagus
- irritable bowel syndrome--> chronic gas, abd. pain. diarrhea and constipation with unknown causes
- Ulcers--> mainly duadenal. open sores in the lining. can be caused by stress or helicobacter pylori
- constipation--> inability to pass feces. dehydration
- lactose intolerance--> bloated, diarrhea, pain. caused by lactose maldigestion
why are carbs the primary fuel source?
- proteins use too much energy to break down.
- fats are less efficient as fuel and restrictive to brain fuel
- immediate product of photosynthesis
- fuel storage of plants
- complex carbohydrates
mono vs. di-sachrides
- mono- singular
- Di- double
What are complex carbohydrates? how much of our calories should be from complex carbs? why
- simple sugars that can form larger molecules
- ex. starch, cellulose, glycogen
- 60% should come from complex carbs.
- absorb at uniform rate because they take longer to digest.
what is fiber? examples?
- no calories, prevent constipation, indigestible by human enzymes
- ex. cellulose, pectines, gums, lignins
soluble vs. insoluble fiber
- soluble: combines well with water
- insoluble: does not combine well with water
- adds bulk to feel full
- promotes intestinal mobility
- minimizes diverticulosis (weakening of int. wall)
- affects water absorption
what are cautions of fiber?
- may promote dehydration if too much is consumed
- can interfere with absorption of some medications
- may produce gas
- avoid excess in children
how does the body use sugars?
by intestine--> liver
what are the types of sugars? (11)
- brown sugar
- maple sugar
- corn syrup
- high fructose corn syrup
- lactose sugar alcohols
sugar's effect on teeth and health
sticky sugars break down tooth enamel within 20-30 min of contact due to bacteria converting sugars to acids.
poor nutrition and obesity
- rate of digestion and absorption and effects on blood glucose levels
- levels: low (not as ready to be digested) and high (readily digestible and absorbed)
- food classification method
- created for diabetics-tracts calories, CHOs, PROs
- healthy way of eating
what is hypoglycemia?
too much insulin and too low blood glucose levels
what are the types of diabetes?
- type I: insulin is not produced and requires insulin treatments
- Type II: insulin is not recognized and treated by diet, pills, or insulin
what do insulin and glucagon do?
insulin facilitates glucose uptake by cells
glucagon breaks down glycogen to glucose
sugar substitutes (5)
- Sacchrin (sweet and low)
- aspertaime (nutrasweet)--> not good for people with phenyllatonceria
- sucralose (splenda)
- stevia (can decrease sperm count)
- rebiana (dirived from Stevia FDA approved)
-what are they?
- how many are there?
- how many are essential?
- amino acids are polypeptides
- 20 amino acids
- 9 are essential
functions of proteins (9)
- growth and repair
- cell membrane
- muscles/contractile structures
- visual pigments-hair, skin, nails
- blood proteins- oxygen carriers
- structural matrix
anabolic vs. catabolic pathways
- anabolic: build up proteins
- catabolic: break down proteins and release energy
Link between PEM and Edema
- PEM (protein energy malnutrition) leads to:
- kwashiokor which leads to:
- Edema-fluid accumulation in the tissues
complete vs. incomplete proteins
- complete: contains all essential amino acids
- incomplete: lacking one or more essential amino acids
supplements and relation to methionine
- Melatonin: use to promote sleep
- Methionine: 2-5 times the recommended amount normally consumed
- causes: hardening of arteries, impair fetal development, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and worsen symptoms of schizophrenia
RDA of proteins
- men: 56g
- women: 46g
- average intake: 75g
high protein diets can lead to...
- higher risk of heart disease
- higher risk for some cancer
- increases kidney work due to calcium excretion
mRNA---> amino acid chain---> protein
denaturation is do to
- heavy metals
- PH change
What are the functions of fats? (8)
- cell membranes (phospholipids)
- coating/prevent dehydration
- reserve energy molecules (adipose cells--> storage)
- promotes satiety/enhance flavor
- essential fat soluble vitamins
What are the categories of lipids in the body?
fats, waxes, oils, steroids, lipoproteins
what is the structure of fats?
- saturated: c-c bond
- unsaturated: c=c bond
what is the difference between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats?
- saturated: c-c bond
- unsaturated: c=c bond
- monounsaturated: one c=c bond
- polyunsaturated: multiple c=c bond
what is a trans fat?
hydrogenation of unsaturated fat
what are the essential fatty acids and their functions?
Vitamin omega 3 and omega 6
what are the functions of omega 3
- lower cholestrol,
- raise HDL
- lower cancer risk
- reduce inflammatory response
what is the function of omega 6
- chemical messengers
- regulate blood pressure, clotting and immunity
what percentage of our fatty acid intake should be essential fatty acid
<3% of fatty acids that we consume should be 3 to 6
what are sterols used for in the body?
hormones and cholestrol
how do we store fat?
as adipose cells
what are the recommendations for fat in the diet?
no more than 30% of daily calories from fat, and from that, 10% or less should be from saturated fat.
how do you calculate the percentage of calories from fat in food?
x/total * 100= percentage
what health concerns are increased with increased fat intake?