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- Diet that has to complete 2 needs
- 1) Support life
- 2) Allow for reproduction
Must support life, allow for reproduction but also contains all nutrients required in proper proportions to each other nutrient
3 energy soruces
- 1) Proteins
- 2) Fats
- 3) Carbohydrates
3 non-energy sources
- 1) Vitamins
- 2) Minerals
- 3) H2O
Amount to feed small breeds
Under 20 lbs, need 30% more calories, pound for pound
Amount to feed medium breeds
20-75 lbs, 30 calories per pound of body weight
Amount to feed large breeds
Over 75 lbs, 15% fewer calories pound for pound than medium breeds.
When feed dry food with 1600 digestible calories per pound must feed
1/4 to 1/3 ounce of food per pound of body weight daily
Factors that influence food amount
- 1) Age
- 2) Activity
- 3) Temperature
Mature dog requires lower nutrient intake per pound than dog during growth, gestation, lactation, and hard work
Need higher calorie intake when playing or hard work
10 degree drop in temperature outdoor dogs need 7.5% more calories. Increase in temperature of 10 degrees dog needs 7.5% less calories. Starting temperature is &0 degrees.
How many grams in 1 ounce?
How many ounces in 1 pound?
Table scrapes should never account for more than how much of a animals diet?
When feeding puppies/kittens
9 weeks gestation and 6 weeks lactation. 7-10 days of newborns life eyes remain close and should double birth weight and gain its birth weight each week during lactation
What is conception?
Union of egg and sperm
What is clevage?
Separation of zygote
What happens during the embryo stage?
When does and embryo become a fetus?
When it attaches to uterus
When does a fetus become an newborn?
During parnutrition (act of giving birth)
What does monotocious mean?
What does polytocious mean?
How many times to feed newborns
- 0-4 weeks- 4 times/day
- 4-10 months- 2-3 times/day
- 10 months- 1 time/day
Good Puppy Formula (up to 5 weeks of age)
- 1 cup dry puppy food
- 1 cup canned food
- 1 teaspoon pancake syrup
- 1 cup whole milk
- Blend adding water til its milkshake consistency, feed warm colic possible when cold
How much food to feed newborns
- Puppy- 1 oz/lb/24 hrs DRY
- Adult- .5 oz/lb/24 hrs DRY
- 1.5 oz/lb/24 hrs MOIST
Feeding during gestation
After bred bitch will increase gradually during first 6-7 weeks of gestation, during last 2 weeks food intake will increase by as much as 25%, breed bitches may continue reducing food intake to 24 hrs before whelping and temperature drops 8 hours before whelping
Puppies/kittens need heat
Most die within 2 weeks due to hypothermia, heat can be provided by circulating water heating pads, "Bear Huggers" and "Hot dog Wraps". Bitch provides heat with moisture, stimulation of alimentary tract, circulation, mothering, security and milk
Temperature guidelines for orphans
- 1st week- 90-85 degrees
- 2nd week- 85 degrees
- 3rd and 4th week- 80 degrees
- 5th week- 70-75 degrees
- After 5th week- 70 degrees
What to feed orphan animal
- Bordens Esbilac- dogs
- KLM- cat
- Can feed whole milk
How to feed orphan animal
Avoid overfeeding, make gradual food changes, 3-4 hour time periods between nursing and start of milk re-placer feeding
Animal can survive how long without oxygen, water and food?
- 3 mins without oxygen
- 3 days without water
- 3 weeks without food
RVT should be able to assist in assessing patients..
- 1) Body condition
- 2) Hydration
- 3) Daily energy requirements
- 4) Help administer specialized feedings
3 basic forms of pet food
- 1) Dry with 3-11% water
- 2) Semi-moist with 25-35% water
- 3) Moist with 70-83% water
True cost of feeding
Cost of feeding a pet per day or cost per year
What type of food is the major source of calories in North America
Dry pet food
4 advantages to dry food
- 1) Cost effective
- 2) Convenient
- 3) Easy to use
- 4) Allows owner to leave food out for extended periods of time
- Key nutritional factor immediately after birth. Provides
- 1) fluid for vital postpartum circulatory expansion
- 2) Carries protective maternal antibodies that must be taken within 24-48 hrs to be absorbed via digestive tract
- 3) Contain energy and non-energy producing components of nutrition in high quantities
Weaning a companion pet
- At 3 weeks- deciduous teeth start to appear, introduce semisolid gruel
- Between 3-4 weeks- weaning starts
- 5 weeks- Reducing their intake of mothers milk and consume larger amounts of gruel
- After weaning- Ability for pup to digest lactose becomes less efficient and puppies feed milk can develop diarrhea
The Weaning Formula
- -Dont feed the bitch on the day of weaning give plenty of fresh water
- -Second day feed 1/4 normal maintenance amount
- -Third day feed 1/2 of normal maintenance amount
- -Fourth day feed 3/4 normal maintenance
- -Fifth day food should be offered at normal maintenance level
How many calories does an adult cat need?
32-34 calories per pound of body weight per day
What factors determine the amount of food that is required by a cat/dog?
- 1) Age
- 2) Activity
- 3) Temperature
- 4) Body metabolism
Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)
Nephrons filters in kidney that separate good and bad components from the blood, good returned to blood to continue to circulate while waste is excreted through ureter and on out with urine. Don't want a high protein diet with kidney failure b/c it contributes to elevation of BUN and accelerate rate at which the kidney functions.
Levels of protein to give in diet
- 1) Growing dog: 26%
- 2) Maintenance: 20%
- 3) Early signs of kidney disease: 17%
- 4) Renal failure: 12%
Gastrointestinal disease causes
Dietary, infections, parasite, neurological, anatomic, allergic, and metabolic
Examples of struvites?
Magnesium, ammonium and phosphate
ACE inhibitor, keep blood pressure down so the renin angiotensin system doesn't keep blood pressure down, blocks the conversion of angotensin I to angiotensin II which stops the production of aldosterone. Sodium and water keeps blood pressure down. When there is a mitral valve deficiency blood backs up into the left atrium and into the lungs causing a pulmonary edema
What does RER mean?
Resting energy requirements
What does PN mean?
Parenteral nutrition, delivery of nutrition intravenously, compound solution containing electrolytes, amino acids, and lipids in a crystalloid suspension. Given at a maintenance dose (60 mL/Kg/day)
Why to avoid giving your dog bones
Will splinter and become wedged in teeth and can lacerate the esophagus or cause GI constipation or obstipation
What is obesity?
Animal over its desired weight sue to an accumulation of body fat, number one cause is overfeeding
What is grossly obese?
Weighs half and above its normal weight
What percentage of cat/dog are overweight in US?
What are 2 common metabolic abnormalities?
- 1) Hypothyroidism
- 2) Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's disease)
What test is often done in house to determine ACTH levels?
Dexamethasone tolerance test
What do you test to determine hypothyroidism?
T3 and T4
What diseases are obese animals prone to?
- 1) Coronary heart disease
- 2) Diabetes mellitus
- 3) Hypertension
- 4) Pulmonary disorders
- 5) Liver, kidney, and gallbladder disease
How to determine if a animal is obese?
- 1) Take a dietary history: type of food, quantity of food fed per day, who feeds the pet
- 2) Preliminary general exam: rule out any diseases
- 3) Discuss subject of pet obesity with client
9 steps to obesity management
- 1) Enlist the client
- 2) Set goals
- 3) Determine daily caloric allotments
- 4) Make client responsible
- 5) Perform regular weigh ins
- 6) Exercise
- 7) Legal treats
- 8) Feed several times a day
- 9) Provide a support program
What does caloric distribution mean?
Replacing fats with carbohydrates or proteins will reduce caloric intake by 50%
Some pet food companies reduce caloric density in their weight-loss diets with high levels like cellulose, but this can deprive the animal of vital nutrients such as proteins and vitamins
3 steps to nutritional obesity management
- 1) Caloric distribution
- 2) Moderate fermentable fiber
- 3) High quality protein
What is coprophagy?
What is the main cause of coprophagy?
Use for canine c/d
Use for canine d/d
Adverse reactions to food
Use for canine g/d
Older dogs at risk for kidney and heart disease
Use for canine i/d
Gastrointestinal conditions, Pancreatitis and colinitis
Use for canine k/d
Kidney failure and moderate heart disease
Use for canine l/d
Liver disease, hepatic encephalopathy, copper storage disease
Use for canine p/d
Growth and recuperative conditions
Use for canine r/d
Obesity and lymphangiectasia
Use for canine s/d
Dissolution of struvite crystals
Use for canine u/d
Urolithiasis, Ca+ oxylate, urate and cystine crystals
Use for canine w/d
Diabetes mellitus, colitis, constipation, obesity, and hyperlipidema