Canine/Feline Nutrition

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Canine/Feline Nutrition
2013-10-07 23:04:30
Canine Feline Lab

Canine/Feline Lab
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  1. Complete diet
    • Diet that has to complete 2 needs
    • 1) Support life
    • 2) Allow for reproduction
  2. Balanced diet
    Must support life, allow for reproduction but also contains all nutrients required in proper proportions to each other nutrient
  3. 3 energy soruces
    • 1) Proteins
    • 2) Fats
    • 3) Carbohydrates
  4. 3 non-energy sources
    • 1) Vitamins
    • 2) Minerals
    • 3) H2O
  5. Amount to feed small breeds
    Under 20 lbs, need 30% more calories, pound for pound
  6. Amount to feed medium breeds
    20-75 lbs, 30 calories per pound of body weight
  7. Amount to feed large breeds
    Over 75 lbs, 15% fewer calories pound for pound than medium breeds.
  8. When feed dry food with 1600 digestible calories per pound must feed
    1/4 to 1/3 ounce of food per pound of body weight daily
  9. Factors that influence food amount
    • 1) Age
    • 2) Activity
    • 3) Temperature
  10. Age
    Mature dog requires lower nutrient intake per pound than dog during growth, gestation, lactation, and hard work
  11. Activity
    Need higher calorie intake when playing or hard work
  12. Temperature
    10 degree drop in temperature outdoor dogs need 7.5% more calories. Increase in temperature of 10 degrees dog needs 7.5% less calories. Starting temperature is &0 degrees.
  13. How many grams in 1 ounce?
    28.3 g
  14. How many ounces in 1 pound?
    16 ounces
  15. Table scrapes should never account for more than how much of a animals diet?
  16. When feeding puppies/kittens
    9 weeks gestation and 6 weeks lactation. 7-10 days of newborns life eyes remain close and should double birth weight and gain its birth weight each week during lactation
  17. What is conception?
    Union of egg and sperm
  18. What is clevage?
    Separation of zygote
  19. What happens during the embryo stage?
    Organ development
  20. When does and embryo become a fetus?
    When it attaches to uterus
  21. When does a fetus become an newborn?
    During parnutrition (act of giving birth)
  22. What does monotocious mean?
    1 embryo
  23. What does polytocious mean?
    Multiple embryos
  24. How many times to feed newborns
    • 0-4 weeks- 4 times/day
    • 4-10 months- 2-3 times/day
    • 10 months- 1 time/day
  25. Good Puppy Formula (up to 5 weeks of age)
    • 1 cup dry puppy food
    • 1 cup canned food
    • 1 teaspoon pancake syrup
    • 1 cup whole milk
    • Blend adding water til its milkshake consistency, feed warm colic possible when cold
  26. How much food to feed newborns
    • Puppy- 1 oz/lb/24 hrs DRY
    • Adult- .5 oz/lb/24 hrs DRY
    • 1.5 oz/lb/24 hrs MOIST
  27. Feeding during gestation
    After bred bitch will increase gradually during first 6-7 weeks of gestation, during last 2 weeks food intake will increase by as much as 25%, breed bitches may continue reducing food intake to 24 hrs before whelping and temperature drops 8 hours before whelping
  28. Puppies/kittens need heat
    Most die within 2 weeks due to hypothermia, heat can be provided by circulating water heating pads, "Bear Huggers" and "Hot dog Wraps". Bitch provides heat with moisture, stimulation of alimentary tract, circulation, mothering, security and milk
  29. Temperature guidelines for orphans
    • 1st week- 90-85 degrees
    • 2nd week- 85 degrees
    • 3rd and 4th week- 80 degrees
    • 5th week- 70-75 degrees
    • After 5th week- 70 degrees
  30. What to feed orphan animal
    • Bordens Esbilac- dogs
    • KLM- cat
    • Can feed whole milk
  31. How to feed orphan animal
    Avoid overfeeding, make gradual food changes, 3-4 hour time periods between nursing and start of milk re-placer feeding
  32. Animal can survive how long without oxygen, water and food?
    • 3 mins without oxygen
    • 3 days without water
    • 3 weeks without food
  33. RVT should be able to assist in assessing patients..
    • 1) Body condition
    • 2) Hydration
    • 3) Daily energy requirements
    • 4) Help administer specialized feedings
  34. 3 basic forms of pet food
    • 1) Dry with 3-11% water
    • 2) Semi-moist with 25-35% water
    • 3) Moist with 70-83% water
  35. True cost of feeding
    Cost of feeding a pet per day or cost per year
  36. What type of food is the major source of calories in North America
    Dry pet food
  37. 4 advantages to dry food
    • 1) Cost effective
    • 2) Convenient
    • 3) Easy to use
    • 4) Allows owner to leave food out for extended periods of time
  38. Colostrum
    • Key nutritional factor immediately after birth. Provides
    • 1) fluid for vital postpartum circulatory expansion
    • 2) Carries protective maternal antibodies that must be taken within 24-48 hrs to be absorbed via digestive tract
    • 3) Contain energy and non-energy producing components of nutrition in high quantities
  39. Weaning a companion pet
    • At 3 weeks- deciduous teeth start to appear, introduce semisolid gruel
    • Between 3-4 weeks- weaning starts
    • 5 weeks- Reducing their intake of mothers milk and consume larger amounts of gruel
    • After weaning- Ability for pup to digest lactose becomes less efficient and puppies feed milk can develop diarrhea
  40. The Weaning Formula
    • -Dont feed the bitch on the day of weaning give plenty of fresh water
    • -Second day feed 1/4 normal maintenance amount
    • -Third day feed 1/2 of normal maintenance amount
    • -Fourth day feed 3/4 normal maintenance
    • -Fifth day food should be offered at normal maintenance level
  41. How many calories does an adult cat need?
    32-34 calories per pound of body weight per day
  42. What factors determine the amount of food that is required by a cat/dog?
    • 1) Age
    • 2) Activity
    • 3) Temperature
    • 4) Body metabolism
  43. Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)
    Nephrons filters in kidney that separate good and bad components from the blood, good returned to blood to continue to circulate while waste is excreted through ureter and on out with urine. Don't want a high protein diet with kidney failure b/c it contributes to elevation of BUN and accelerate rate at which the kidney functions.
  44. Levels of protein to give in diet
    • 1) Growing dog: 26%
    • 2) Maintenance: 20%
    • 3) Early signs of kidney disease: 17%
    • 4) Renal failure: 12%
  45. Gastrointestinal disease causes
    Dietary, infections, parasite, neurological, anatomic, allergic, and metabolic
  46. Examples of struvites?
    Magnesium, ammonium and phosphate
  47. Enacard
    ACE inhibitor, keep blood pressure down so the renin angiotensin system doesn't keep blood pressure down, blocks the conversion of angotensin I to angiotensin II which stops the production of aldosterone. Sodium and water keeps blood pressure down. When there is a mitral valve deficiency blood backs up into the left atrium and into the lungs causing a pulmonary edema
  48. What does RER mean?
    Resting energy requirements
  49. What does PN mean?
    Parenteral nutrition, delivery of nutrition intravenously, compound solution containing electrolytes, amino acids, and lipids in a crystalloid suspension. Given at a maintenance dose (60 mL/Kg/day)
  50. Why to avoid giving your dog bones
    Will splinter and become wedged in teeth and can lacerate the esophagus or cause GI constipation or obstipation
  51. What is obesity?
    Animal over its desired weight sue to an accumulation of body fat, number one cause is overfeeding
  52. What is grossly obese?
    Weighs half and above its normal weight
  53. What percentage of cat/dog are overweight in US?
  54. What are 2 common metabolic abnormalities?
    • 1) Hypothyroidism
    • 2) Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's disease)
  55. What test is often done in house to determine ACTH levels?
    Dexamethasone tolerance test
  56. What do you test to determine hypothyroidism?
    T3 and T4
  57. What diseases are obese animals prone to?
    • 1) Coronary heart disease
    • 2) Diabetes mellitus
    • 3) Hypertension
    • 4) Pulmonary disorders
    • 5) Liver, kidney, and gallbladder disease
  58. How to determine if a animal is obese?
    • 1) Take a dietary history: type of food, quantity of food fed per day, who feeds the pet
    • 2) Preliminary general exam: rule out any diseases
    • 3) Discuss subject of pet obesity with client
  59. 9 steps to obesity management
    • 1) Enlist the client
    • 2) Set goals
    • 3) Determine daily caloric allotments¬†
    • 4) Make client responsible
    • 5) Perform regular weigh ins
    • 6) Exercise
    • 7) Legal treats
    • 8) Feed several times a day
    • 9) Provide a support program
  60. What does caloric distribution mean?
    Replacing fats with carbohydrates or proteins will reduce caloric intake by 50%
  61. Ferementable fiber
    Some pet food companies reduce caloric density in their weight-loss diets with high levels like cellulose, but this can deprive the animal of vital nutrients such as proteins and vitamins
  62. 3 steps to nutritional obesity management
    • 1) Caloric distribution
    • 2) Moderate fermentable fiber
    • 3) High quality protein
  63. What is coprophagy?
    Eating feces
  64. What is the main cause of coprophagy?
  65. Use for canine c/d
    Struvite urolithiasis
  66. Use for canine d/d
    Adverse reactions to food
  67. Use for canine g/d
    Older dogs at risk for kidney and heart disease
  68. Use for canine i/d
    Gastrointestinal conditions, Pancreatitis and colinitis
  69. Use for canine k/d
    Kidney failure and moderate heart disease
  70. Use for canine l/d
    Liver disease, hepatic encephalopathy, copper storage disease
  71. Use for canine p/d
    Growth and recuperative conditions
  72. Use for canine r/d
    Obesity and lymphangiectasia
  73. Use for canine s/d
    Dissolution of struvite crystals
  74. Use for canine u/d
    Urolithiasis, Ca+ oxylate, urate and cystine crystals
  75. Use for canine w/d
    Diabetes mellitus, colitis, constipation, obesity, and hyperlipidema