History P.6 Vocab

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RobertDolphin
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History P.6 Vocab
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UNIT 1 VOCABULARY TERMS
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  1. Government-
    A government is the system by which a state or community is governed.
  2. Monarchy
    A form of government with a monarch at the head.
  3. Aristocracy
    The highest class in certain societies, esp. those holding hereditary titles or offices.
  4. Oligrachy
    a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution.
  5. Democracy
    a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
  6. Direct democracy
    Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy, is a form of democracy and a theory of civics in which sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate
  7. Republic
    a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch
  8. Senate
    any of various legislative or governing bodies, in particular.
  9. Judaism
    the monotheistic religion of the Jews
  10. Ten Commandments
    Decalogue: the biblical commandments of Moses
  11. Christianity
    the religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, or its beliefs and practices.
  12. Islam
    the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.
  13. Roman Catholic Church
    Roman Catholic: the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
  14. Renaissance
    the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world; a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries
  15. Reformation
    the action or process of reforming an institution or practice.
  16. Common Law
    the part of English law that is derived from custom and judicial precedent rather than statutes. Often contrasted with statutory law .
  17. Magna Carta
    the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
  18. Due Process of Law
    fair treatment through the normal judicial system, esp. as a citizen's entitlement.
  19. Parliament
    (in the UK) the highest legislature, consisting of the sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons.
  20. Divine Right
    the doctrine that kings derive their right to rule directly from God and are not accountable to their subjects; rebellion is the worst of political crimes; "the doctrine of the divine right of kings was enunciated by the Stuarts in Britain in the 16th century"
  21. Glorious Revolution
    English Revolution: the revolution against James II; there was little armed resistance to William and Mary in England although battles were fought in Scotland and Ireland (1688-1689)
  22. Constitutional Monarchy
    A constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a written (i.e., codified), unwritten (i.e., uncodified) or blended constitution. ...
  23. Bill of Rights 1689
    The Bill of Rights (a short title) is an act of the Parliament of England, whose title is An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown. It is often called the English Bill of Rights.
  24. Enlightenment
    a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith.
  25. Social Contract
    an implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection. Theories of a social contract became popular in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries among theorists such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, as a means of explaining the origin of government and the obligations of subjects.
  26. Natural Rights
    Many philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between natural rights and legal rights.
  27. Separation of Powers
    an act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies.
  28. Representative Government
    Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principle of elected individuals representing the people, as opposed to autocracy and direct democracy
  29. Federal System
    Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ...
  30. United Nations
    an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
  31. John Locke
    widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers
  32. Philosophe
    The philosophes (French for philosophers) were the intellectuals of the 18th century Enlightenment.Kishlansky, Mark, et al. A Brief History of Western Civilization: The Unfinished Legacy, volume II: Since 1555.
  33. Voltaire
    French writer who was the embodiment of 18th century Enlightenment (1694-1778)
  34. Montesquieu
    was a French social commentator and political thinker who lived during the Age of Enlightenment.
  35. Rousseau
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th-century
  36. Mary Wollstonecraft
    Mary Wollstonecraft was an eighteenth-century British writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights.
  37. Salon
    a reception room in a large house.
  38. Enlightenment Despot
    Enlightened absolutism (also called by later historians benevolent despotism or enlightened despotism) is a form of absolute monarchy or despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. Enlightened monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality
  39. Catherine the Great
    was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 9 July [O.S. 28 June] 1762 until her death on 17 November 1796 at the age of sixty-seven.
  40. Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the 13 American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire
  41. Thomas Jefferson
    Thomas Jefferson was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States. He was a spokesman for democracy and the rights of man with worldwide influence.
  42. Bill of Rights (U.S.)
    The Bill of Rights is the name by which the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are known
  43. Old Regime
    Ancien Régime refers primarily to the aristocratic system that characterized French society and politics established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties from the 14th century to the 18th century. It was overthrown by the French Revolution.
  44. Estates
    a class or order regarded as forming part of the body politic, in particular (in Britain), one of the three groups constituting Parliament, now the Lords Spiritual (the heads of the Church), the Lords Temporal (the peerage), and the Commons. They are also known as the three estates .
  45. Louis XVI
    Louis XVI was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, after which he was subsequently King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before his deposition and execution during the French Revolution.
  46. Marie Antoinette
    Marie Antoinette, born an Archduchess of Austria, was Dauphine of France from 1770 to 1774 and Queen of France and Navarre from 1774 to 1792. She was the fifteenth and penultimate child of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa
  47. Estates-General
    the legislative body in France until 1789, representing the three estates of the realm
  48. National Assembly
    an elected legislature in various countries.
  49. Tennis Court Oath
    The Tennis Court Oath (serment du jeu de paume) was a pivotal event during the first days of the French Revolution. The Oath was a pledge signed by 576 out of the 577 members from the Third Estate during a meeting of the Estates-General on 20 June 1789 in a tennis court.
  50. Legislative Assembly
    the branch of the United States government that has the power of legislating
  51. Maximilien Robesperrie
    Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution
  52. Reign of Terror
    a period of remorseless repression or bloodshed, in particular ( Reign of Terror ), the period of the Terror during the French Revolution
  53. Napoleon Bonaparte
    Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe
  54. Coup d'etat
    a sudden, violent, and illegal seizure of power from a government.
  55. Napoleonic Code
    The Napoleonic Code — or Code Napoléon (originally, the Code civil des Français) — is the French civil code, established under Napoléon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified.
  56. Battle of Trafalgar
    Trafalgar: a naval battle in 1805 off the southwest coast of Spain; the French and Spanish fleets were defeated by the English under Nelson (who was mortally wounded)
  57. Peninsulare
    In the colonial caste system of Spanish America, a peninsular was a Spanish-born Spaniard or mainland Spaniard residing in the New World, as opposed to a person of full Spanish descent born in the Americas (known as criollos)
  58. Creole
    a person of mixed European and black descent, esp. in the Caribbean.
  59. Mulatto
    a person of mixed white and black ancestry, esp. a person with one white and one black parent.
  60. Simon Bolivar
    Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios Ponte y Blanco, commonly known as Simón Bolívar, was a Venezuelan military and political leader.
  61. Jose De San Martin
    José Francisco de San Martín, known simply as José de San Martín, was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire
  62. Miguel Hidalgo
    Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor, more commonly known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or simply Miguel Hidalgo, was a Mexican priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.
  63. Jose Maria Morales
    José María Morales was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the son of a military patriot who fought in the British invasions. He also followed a military career and was part of the troops of Manuel Oribe until aged 20 he emigrated to Montevideo
  64. Checks and Balances
    counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups.

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