chapter 6 water relations

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misskatrina99
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chapter 6 water relations
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2013-09-29 21:46:27
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chapter 6 water relations
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  1. Water Content of Air
    what is AVP
    • Atmospheric Vapor pressure 
    • -partial pressure due to water vapor
  2. Water Content of Air
    what is SVP
    • •Saturation Vapor Pressure (SVP): Pressure
    • exerted by water vapor in air saturated by water.
  3. water content of air
    what is VPD
    • •Vapor Pressure Deficit: Difference between AVP and SVP at a
    • particular temperature.
  4. water content of air
    how do you measure relative humidity
    Relative Humidity = (AVP/SVP) *100
  5. water content of air
    what does VPD indicate
    the gradient in water concentration from a terrestrial organism to the air. A higher VPD indicates a steeper concentration gradient.
  6. water content of air
    what does a high VPD indicate
    • -the water vapor content of air is well below saturation
    • -the rate of evaporative water loss by organisms is higher
  7. water content of air
    what does a low vpd indicate
    • -the water vapor content of air is near saturation
    • -the rate of evaporation water loss by the organism is lower
  8. water balance in aquatic environments
    in an isomotic aquatic organism, what is the internal concentration proportionality of salt to water to the environment
    • -internal concentrations of water and salt are equal to their concentration in the environment
    • -salt and water diffuse at appx equal rates into and out of organism
  9. water balance in aquatic environments
    in an hyperosmotic aquatic organism, what is the internal concentration proportionality of salt to water to the environment. what are the results.
    • -has a lower internal concentration water and a higher internal concentration of salts
    • -salts diffuse out at a high rate, while water diffuses in at a high rate
  10. water balance in aquatic environmentsin an hypoosmotic aquatic organism, what is the internal concentration proportionality of salt to water to the environment? what are the results?
    • -higher internal concentration of water and lower internal concentration of salts
    • -salts diffuse in at a high rate and water diffuses out at a high rate
  11. water regulation on land-animals
    formula for water regulations for animals (animals internal water)
    • iam done fooling around every saturday
    • wia=wd+wf+wa-we-ws

    • wia-animals internal water
    • wd-drinking
    • wf-food
    • wa-absorbed by water
    • we-evaporation
    • ws-secretion/excretion
  12. water regulations on land-animal
    what two challenges do terrestrial organisms face
    • 1) evaporative loss to environment
    • 2)reduced access to replacement water
  13. water acquisition by animals
    how do most terrestrial animals satisfy their water needs
    • -eating
    • -drinking
  14. water acquisition by animals
    how else can terrestrial animals satisfy their water needs
    metabolism through oxidation of glucose (metabolic water)

    c6H12o6 + 6o2 > 6co2 + 6h2o
  15. water acquisition by plants
    formula
    ip rats

    wip= wr + wa - wt - ws

    • wip- plants internal water
    • wr- roots
    • wa- air
    • wt-transpiration
    • ws-secretions (reproduction, nectar, roots > organic matter (nitrogen fixing bacteria)
  16. water movement between soil and plants
    whatis SPAC
    Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Continuum (SPAC)
  17. water movement between soil and plants
    what is water potential
    • Water
    • potential (y) is
    • a measure of the free energy of water relative to that of pure water.
  18. water movement between soil and plants
    what is the driving force
    Gradient of total water potential between soil, plant, and atmosphere is
  19. water movement between soil and plants
    what is transiration and what causes it?
    • •Transpiration is the driving
    • force.  Cohesive forces of water pull
    • water through the plant by transpiration.


    ysoil > yroot > ystem > yleaf >> yair

    • -a special form of evaporation. the stoma opens up to take in co2 and water ALWAYS flows out because it is saturated and there is no VPD
    • -caused by cohesive force
  20. water movement between soil and plant
    what role does water play SPAC
    • -acts as a solvent
    • -provides structure to cell
    • -provides a pressure potential
  21. water movement between soil and plant
    whatis the water potential of pure water
    0
  22. water movement between soil and plant
    what is the potential of dry air
    -100
  23. water movement between soil and plant
    what happens to water as it moves through the soil, plant, and to the atmosphere and why does it do it despite gravity
    • the water potential is reduced because of
    • -gravity
    • -matrix force
    • -friction
    • -xylem elements smaller

    this will happen as long as there is enough water to replace it because of transporation (stoma opens up)(osmosis)
  24. water movement between soil and plant
    why is soil have a negative potential
    • -mineral
    • -ions
    • -solids
  25. water acquisition by plants
    how do plants get more water?
    they grow roots and increase their biomass which gives thema higher less variable water potential

    - in drier areas the roots are more massive  and usually put less into the leaves. root-shoot ratio

    • -change leaf color
    • -dump leaves
    • -thick waxy cuticles
    • -deciduous
  26. water conservation
    how do animals conserve water
    • -coverings
    • -avoiding exposure especially during times of drought
  27. water conservation
    how have animals such as the camel evolved to survive in extremely hot condition
    • -drink a lot of water, store it, and use it when needed
    • -face into the sun to reduce wr
  28. water conservation
    how did the cactus conserve energy
    • -folds channel water to roots
    • -folds allow the cactus to expand and contract depending on water availability
    • -folds provide shade to plant
    • -spines reduce exposure to radiation by providing shade
    • -spines channel water to roots
  29. water conservation
    what helps to conserve water loss from transiration
    • -changing color
    • -orientation of leaves
    • -Wilting-induced variations in leaf morphology (leaf rolling) reduce radiation exposure and
    • water loss from transpiration.
  30. water conservation
    what do sunken stomata do
    • Sunken stomata increase resistance
    • to water loss through transpiration
  31. water conservation
    what is produces in response to soil drying and what does it do
    Abscissic acid (ABA) produced in the roots causes stomatal closure by causing humidity in response to soil drying (no more water vapor)

    water potential drops in roots and ACA produced and concentration of ACA increases. >guard cells

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