zoology: Anima building blocks

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zoology: Anima building blocks
2013-09-29 21:49:49

Flashcard for my exam.
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  1. What is starch?
    Made entirely of glucose which coils into a helix. It is stored in roots, the bodies, tubers or seeds of plants. examples of starch: rice, potatoes, wheat, corn,etc.
  2. What is glycogen.
    • Glycogen is the way animals store excess sugar.
    • It is like starch, but more extensively branch in its structure.
    • We store most of our glycogen in liver and muscles ready to be broken down when glucose is needed for energy.
  3. What is cellulose?
    The most abundant organic compound on earth. It is made up of glucose that we cannot digest= Fiber. Those animals that do digest cellulose do so by using microorganisms that produce the enzyme cellulose. e.g. termites, ruminants.
  4. Carbohydrates also play a basic role as a part of ______ structure eg. DNA and RNA, and have important roles in cell/cell recognition, eg _________
    Fill in blank.
    Nucleic Acid and Glycolipids
  5. What are Lipids?
    • They are a diverse group of macromolecules both in structure and function. 
    • All share one very important property. 
    • They are highly non-polar. ie. insoluble in H2O. 
    • a.k.a. known as fat.
  6. There are 3 basic groups of lipids what are they?
    • Fats & oils. 
    • Phospholipids
    • Steroids.
  7. What are Fats & Oils?
    hint: they are constructed of two basic units.
    • Glycerol-3 carbon alcohol with 3 OH group which make it highly polar and very soluble in H2O.
    • Fatty acids: long chains of carbon atoms attached to a caboxyl or acid group. Very non-polar.
  8. What are phospholipids?
    usually the major component of all animal cell membranes.
  9. What are steroids?
    Carbon skeleton bent to form four fused rings. The ones we usually think of are cholesterol and anabolic or synthetic steroids.
  10. Dehydration synthesis
  11. What are three fatty acids linked to glycerol called?
  12. Fat molecule
  13. A steroid
  14. Anabolic steroids are synthetic variants of what male hormone?
  15. Structure of a phospholipid
  16. peptide bond formation
  17. Nucleotide
  18. There are 2 types of Nucleic acids or polynucleotides. What are they called?
    DNA and RNA
  19. What does DNA and RNA stand for?
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid
    • Ribonucleic acid
  20. What is the structure of DNA?
    • Dna is a double helix polynucleotide
    • RNA is a Single polynucleotide string? can't tell from notes.
  21. Where is DNA contained? RNA?
    • DNA is contained in the cell nucleus
    • RNA travels between the nucleus and the cell. eg mRNA (messenger), t(transfer) RNA and (ribosomal)RNA.