BSC 1005 FAMU Dr.Long

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  1. Why are cells described as the basic unit of life? And what is the cell theory?
    -Cells are described as the basic unit of life because all living things are made of cells. -

    • Cell theory statement basically states three things:
    • ~all living things or organisms are made of cells and their products
    • ~new cells are created by old cells through division
    • ~that cells are the basic building blocks of life.
  2. Surface area difference between large and small cells
    • If the cell grows beyond a certain limit, not enough material will be able to cross the membrane fast enough to accommodate the increased cellular volume. When this happens, the cell must divide into smaller cells with favorable surface area/volume ratios, or cease to function.
    • –  The  volume  increases  by  the  cube  of  the  sides  (height  X  width  X   depth).   –  The  surface  area  increases  the  square  of  the  sides  and  the   number  of  sides  (height  X  width  X  6).   –  If  a  cell  doubles  in  size,  its  surface  area  increases  fourfold,   while  the  volume  increases  eigh^old.  

    ~The surface area to the volume ratio gets smaller as the cell gets larger
  3. Fundamental components of a bacteria cell.
    • Cell Wall and Ribosomes are present.
    • No Nucleus or membrane bound organelles.
  4. Key differences between archaea and bacteria.
    One is that archaea has metabolic pathways more similar to eukaryotes. Also, archea only uses lipids in their cell membranes. Unlike bacteria, archea do not produce spores.
  5. Recognize the structure and function of the organelles within eukaryotic cells.

    • Cell wall-Support and protection
    • Plasma Membrane-Defines cell boundary regulates molecule passage into and out of cells
    • Nucleus-Storage of generic information;synthesis of DNA and RNA
    • Nucleoili-Ribosomal subunit formation
    • Ribosomes-Protein synthesis
    • Endplasmic reticulum-Synthesis and/or mdification of proteins and other substances and distribution by vesicle formation
    • Rough ER-Folding modification and transport of proteins
    • Smooth ER-Various; lipid synthesis in some cells.
    • Golgi Apparatus-Processing,packaging,and distribution of proteins and lipids.
    • Lysosomes-Intracelluar digestion
    • Vacuoles and Vesicles-Storage of substances
    • Peroxisomes-Various meabolic tasks
    • Mitochondria-Cellular respiration
    • Chloroplasts-Photosynthesis
    • Cytoskeleton-Shape of cell and movement of its parts
    • Cilla and Flagella-Movement of cell
    • Centriole-Formation of basal bodies
  6. Cellular structures unique to both plant and animal cells.
    Both have a cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, ribosomes, golgi apparatus, nucleus, and microtubules.
  7. Identify the parts of a bacteria cell.
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  8. Identify the parts of an animal cell.
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  9. Identify the parts of a plant cell.
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  10. What is osmosis & diffusion?
    • ~Diffusion is a spontaneous movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
    • ~Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a solution with a high solute concentration, down a solute concentration gradient.

    • Example of Diffusion
    • Perfume or Air Freshener where the gas molecules diffuse into the air spreading the aroma.
    • Example of Osmosis
    • Movement of water into root hair cells.
  11. What is the endocytosis and exocytosis?
    • ~Endocytosis is the process for moving items that are outside of the cell into the cytoplasm of the cell.
    • ~Exocytosis is the process for moving items from the cytoplasm of the cell to the outside.
  12. What is hypotonic, isotonic, an hypertonic?
    • ~Hypertonic is a higher concentration outside and water goes out faster(shrivel)
    • ~Isotonic is an equal concentration in both the inside and outside of the cell(normal)
    • ~Hypotonic is a lower concentration outside and water goes in faster(Turgid)
  13. What is the difference between a solution and a solute?
    A solution is the makeup of a solute and solvent. Both of which dissolve into one another.

    • Example
    • Think of making tea.
    • Water=Solvent
    • Teabag=Solute
    • Tea=Solution
  14. Role of the extra cellular matrix in an animal cell?
    • ~provides mechanical and structural support for tissue (as well as tensile strength for the tissue)
    • ~biochemical barrier --> defense
    • ~regulating metabolic functions of the cells surrounded by the matrix
    • ~adhesion --> anchor cells within tissue
    • ~migration --> provides pathways (e.g., during wound repair)
    • ~proliferation --> modulate cell growth by binding and retaining growth factors
    • ~differentiation --> influences transmission of information across the plasma membrane of the connective tissue cells
  15. Role of the cell wall in plant cells.
    Cell walls are important features of plant cells that perform a number of essential functions, including providing shape to the many different cell types needed to form the tissues and organs of a plant.
  16. What are the types of proteins in the cell membrane?
    1)Ion channels, 2)Transporter or Carrier Proteins, 3)Enzymes, 4)Linker proteins, and 5)receptor site proteins.

    • 1.Ion channels are a very narrow tube-shaped protein that help establish a tiny pore in the cell membrane. 
    • 2.They are embedded in the cell membrane to help transport glucose and amino acids across the membrane. 
    • 3.Are chemicals that catalyze biochemical proteins.
    • 4.The cytoskeleton refers to the matrix of proteins in the cytoplasm.  These proteins are associated with movement and affect the shape of the cell.
    • 5. This is where hormones and neurotransmitters and other chemicals attach to the surface of the cell.
  17. Theory of Endosymbiosis and valuable supporting evidence.
    ~explains the origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria and their double membranes.

    Both Have their own DNA, Can replicate independently of the cell, Have double membranes, Have ribosomes more like a prokaryote’s

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BSC 1005 FAMU Dr.Long
2013-10-03 02:34:13

BSC 1005 Dr.Long FAMU
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