Vet histology lecture 12 & 13 (connective tissue)

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Vet histology lecture 12 & 13 (connective tissue)
2013-09-30 18:06:49
Vet histology lecture 12 13 connective tissue

Vet histology lecture 12 & 13 (connective tissue)
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  1. What are the 2 general types of connective tissue cells?
    • Resdient cells
    • Wandering cells
  2. Describe the general category of wandering cells?
    • Derived mostly from leukocytes
    • move from different compartments
  3. What are the cells contained in the wandering cell category
    • Plasma cells
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
  4. What are the cells in the resident cells category?
    • Mesenchymal cells
    • Fribrocytes/blasts
    • Reticular cells
    • adipocytes
    • mast cells
    • macrophages
  5. is connective tissue mostly cell or ECM?
  6. Name 3 functions of connective tissue (random 3 but here are 3 good ones)
    • Insulation
    • Diffusion of nutrients and wastes to and from cells to blood vessels
    • tensile strength of body
  7. connective tissue derives from what embryonic layer?
  8. What are the 2 types of connective tissue stem cells that begin the 2 linneages
    • undifferentiated mesenchymal cells
    • heopoietic stem cells
  9. Describe the mesenchymal cell` wher eis it found?
    • Irregular shape with multiple processes
    • Pluripotent reserve
    • embryonic connective tissues or close to blood vessels in adults
  10. Are there many mesenchymal cells in the adult?
    No just a few for repair
  11. Describe the connective tissue of an infant?
    Very gelatinous, no fibres if there were fibres at this stage the body would not be very moldable
  13. What is the function of the fibrocyte and blast?
    To produce fivres that lend tensil;e strength such as collagen
  14. Which stage actually produces the fibres in the fibrocyte or the fibroblast? What is unique betrween the relationship with these 2 cells?
    • Blast
    • They can go back and forth
  15. As compared to smooth muscle the fibrocyte/blasts look much more
    Pink in colour and have a more spindly shaped NUCLEUS
  16. What is bigger in connective tissue, the fibres or the cells creating the fibres
    The fibres
  17. What does a reticular cell look like?
    Similar to a mesenchymal cell, styar shaped in appearance
  18. What does the reticular cell do?
    • Produces collagen meshwork to hold things in place
    • ex) the connective tissue surrounding individual cells
  19. IS a reticular cell the same as a reticulocyte?
    • No
    • Reticulocyte - RBC
    • Reticular cell - connective tissue cell
  20. What do adipose cells look like?
    Rings with diamonds stacked on the side, very white in the center
  21. Do adipose cells have lots of cytpoplasm? Where is it?
    NO any remaining cytoplasm and nuclei are squished up against the cell membrane
  22. Differentiate between a multilocular adipocyte and a adipocyte
    • Multi = brown fat, instead of having 1 big fat droplet has many droplets and many many special mitochondria that produce only heat. important for babies and hibernating animals
    • adipo = white fat
  23. What is a mast cell?
    • initiates allergic reactions in the body
    • sits close to blood vessels
    • don't stain well in H&E
  24. Why don't mast cells stain well in H &E?
    Lots of histamine granules
  25. Which connective tissue cell causes anaphalactic shock?
    Mast cell
  26. What do macrophages get up to?
    • Phagocytic
    • Release of cytokines to attract neutrophils
    • processes antigens for immunity
  27. Why does a macrophage look like it has lots of holes within?
    Cause it is phagocytising almost constantly. little projections coming out of the cell
  28. What is a plasma cell?
    Very very active B lymphocyte they go into tissues and produce tonnes of antibodies they have very prominent golgi
  29. What is the ground substance made of?
    • Multi adhesive proteins
    • glycosaminoglycan
    • proteoglycans

    Basically a lot of carbs and a protein core
  30. Where does the ground substance get its hydrophilic nature?
  31. What are 3 types of multi adhesive proteins found in the ground substance
    • integrins
    • laminins
    • fibronectin
  32. How many types of glycosaminoglycans are there? Name them
    • 7
    • non sulfated - hyalouronic acid
    • sulfated - chondroitin 4 sulfate and chondroitin 6 sulfate
    • -dermatin sulfate
    • -keratin sulfate
    • -heparin sulfate
    • -heperain
  33. Describe where the following GAGs are found?
    hyalouronic acid
    Chondrotin 4 sulfate
    chondrotin 6 sulfate
    dermatan sulfate
    heparin sulfate
    keratin sulfate
    • hyalouronic acid - umbilical chord, synovial fluid
    • Chondrotin 4 sulfate - cartiledge bone skin
    • chondrotin 6 sulfate - cartiledge skin
    • dermatan sulfate - skin tendons
    • heparin sulfate - lung liver
    • keratin sulfate - cornea (1 type) cartiledge (other type)

    Note: all types other tha H acid and keratin are found in the aorta
  34. Describe the physical structure of the ground substance
    • many proteoglycan monomers stuck onto a long hyaluronic acid, with collagen fibers jutting inbetween like railroad tracks
    • A proteoglycan monomer is formed of mans GAGs surrounding a protein core
  35. What are the three connective tissue fibers?
    • Collagen fibers
    • Reticular fibers
    • Elastic fibers
  36. What is the most abundant protein in the body?
  37. collagen fibres are made up of?
    Collagen fibrils
  38. Collagen bundles are made of? Which are made of?
    • Fibres
    • Fibrils
  39. The function and properties of collagen are?
    Tensile and mechanical strength
  40. Describe how collagen polypeptide strands become fibrils
    • 3 proteins twist around eachother making a procollagen
    • Added end to end and twisted together with other procollagen to make a fibril
  41. What is at first stopping the procollagen from coming together end to end and forming fibrils? Where does it have to go to have it removed by what?
    • terminal peptides inhibiting end to end interactions
    • Has to leave the fibroblast or whatever cell is making it and in the connective tissue peptidyase cuts off the end
  42. why do we see striations on collagen stuck together to make connective tissues?
    Because when procollagen joins together end to end it does not actually touch, it leaves a small gap inbetween
  43. What joins all the fibrils together?
    Covalent bonds
  44. Describe from a collagen polypeptide to a collagen bundle
    • Collagen
    • Procollagen
    • Fibril
    • Fibre
    • Bundle
  45. What surrounds each fiber? Bundle? Tendon? What are these made of?
    • Endotendineum
    • Peritendineum
    • Epitendineum

    Collagen fibres themselves however just make a sheet and have collagen fibrils going in different directions so not so regulated
  46. The fact that all fibres in a tendon run parralell to eachother lends to the tendons
    Tensile strength
  47. Around each fibre as well as a endtendineum there is also a what? (squished like a triangle)
    Fibroblasts present for repair and rejuvination
  48. Do tendons heal fast?
  49. There are more than 20 types of collagen, however 4 main groups, what are these groups? (what numbers for bonus marks)
    • Fibril forming - 1,2,3,5,11
    • Fibril associated - 9,12,14
    • Anchoring fibril forming - 7
    • Network forming - 4
  50. Fibril forming collagen obviously makes fibrils but describe what type 1,2, and 3 do
    • 1 = makes bundle
    • 2 - makes cartidledge and bundles
    • 3= lots of associated carbs stays as fibrils, becomes reticular fibres
  51. fibril associated proteins do what? anchoring fibril forming collagen does what? Network forming collagen does what?
    • help interactions between fibrils (glue)
    • Network forming, as well as associated with basal lamina
    • Associated with basal lamina
  52. Does collagen stretch?
    Not hardly
  53. Most abundant collagen type?
  54. Where do you find the elastic fibers around the larger blood vessels? Are they in contact with the blood?
    No they are inbetween the endothelium and smooth muscle
  55. Reticular fibers are also known as what type of collagen fiber?
  56. Are reticular fibers actually fibers in reality?
    No fibrils
  57. Reticular fibers function is to?
    Hold cells together,not so much tensile strength
  58. Elastic fibers are secreted by the? And are made up of?
    • Fibroblast
    • Fibrillin, and elastin
  59. elastic fibers tend to congregate into what type of formation?
    Elastic sheets
  60. How do elastic fibers connect?
    Covalent bonds in cross linking
  61. Where do elastic fibers get their elastic properties from?
    The coily and bendy kinky nature of the fiber, when relaxed it goes into its super coiled form and then when stretched it stetches out
  62. Connective tissue is classified based on what 3 criteria?
    • Type of cells and fibers
    • quantity
    • arrangement of fibers - direction they run
  63. Why do tendons only have strength in one direction?
    Cause they only run in one direction
  64. Whjat are the three types of cells and fibers that we can classify connective tissue by?
    • Elastic tissue
    • Collagen tissue
    • Reticular tissue
  65. What are the two types of embryonic connective tissue?
    • Mesenchyme
    • Mucous connective tissue
  66. Do embryonic connective tissues tend to have high or low levels of connective fibres around them?
    Low if any at all
  67. How can you tell mesenchymal tissue from mucous connective tissue?
    Cant without special stain to stain carbs on mucusous
  68. Where do we find mucous connective tissue in adults?
    Small amounts in umbilical chord other than that no where?
  69. What would the mesenchyme look like?
    Tsar shaped cells. lots of mitosis, cytoplasm stains poorly
  70. What are the two designations given to the two ways connective tissue can run
    • regular - parallel
    • irregular - all over hell
  71. What is loose irregular tissue used more for rather than its tensile strength?
    Provides some space to hold onto fluid and provide nutriotion to surrounding cells
  72. What would be your fibre to ground substance ratio in loose irregular connective tissue?
    • 1:1
    • 50/50
  73. How can you identify dense connective tissue?
    Must be in comparison to loose
  74. Dense irregular connective tissue unline loose likely has more of a ______ function in all directions
    tensile and mechanical strength
  75. In dense connective tissue do we see a higher ratio fo cells or lower as compared to loose connective
    lower much lower
  76. regular connective tissue has tensile strength in? and often forms? they are all running the same?
    • 1 direction
    • bundles
    • direction
  77. a tendon in terms of its connective tissue classification is a?
    Dense regular tissue arranged at the end of a muscle
  78. Elastic fibers typically make?
  79. Why don't we refer to elastic sheets are regular or irregular?
    Cause almost always more or less parrallel
  80. An adipose tissue is?
    A tissue that includes large amounts of adipose cells