Chapter 11 AP Gov Vocab.txt

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zrondos
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Chapter 11 AP Gov Vocab.txt
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Chapter 11 AP Gov Vocab
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  1. Constituents
    The residents of a congressional district or state.
  2. Reapportionment
    The assigning by Congress of congressional seats after each census. State legislatures reapportion state legislative districts.
  3. Redistricting
    The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census, to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population.
  4. Gerrymandering
    The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent.
  5. Safe seat
    An elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party’s candidate is almost taken for granted.
  6. Incumbent
    The current holder of the elected office.
  7. Bicameralism
    The principle of a two-house legislature.
  8. Enumerated powers
    The powers expressly given to Congress in the Constitution.
  9. Speaker
    The presiding officer in the House of Representatives, formally elected by the House but actually selected by the majority party.
  10. Party caucus
    A meeting of the members of a party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and to develop party policy. Called a conference by the Republicans.
  11. Majority leader
    The legislative leader selected by the majority party who helps plan party strategy, confers with other party leaders, and tries to keep members of the party in line.
  12. Minority leader
    the legislative leader selected by the minority party as spokesperson for the opposition.
  13. Whip
    Party leader who is the liaison between the leadership and the rank-and-file in the legislature.
  14. Closed rule
    A procedural rule in the House of Representatives that prohibits any amendments to bills or provides that only members of the committee reporting the bill may offer amendments.
  15. Open rule
    A procedural rule in the House of Representatives that permits floor amendments within the overall time allocated to the bill.
  16. President pro tempore
    Officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as chair in the absence of the vice president.
  17. Hold
    A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator temporarily blocks the consideration of the bill or nomination.
  18. Filibuster
    A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator refuses to relinquish the floor and thereby delays proceedings and prevents a vote on a controversial issue.
  19. Cloture
    A procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate.
  20. Senatorial courtesy
    Presidential custom of submitting the names of perspective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work.
  21. Standing committee
    A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area.
  22. Special or select committee
    A congressional committee created for a specific purpose, sometimes to conduct an investigation.
  23. Joint committee
    A committee composed of members of both the House of Representatives and the Senate; such committees oversee the Library of Congress and conduct investigations.
  24. Earmarks
    Special spending projects that are set aside on behalf of individual members of Congress for their constituents.
  25. Seniority rule
    A legislative practice that assigns the chair of the committee or subcommittee to the member of the majority party with the longest continuous service on the committee.
  26. Conference committee
    Committee appointed by the presiding officers of each chamber to adjust differences on a particular bill passed by each in different form.
  27. Delegate
    An official who is expected to represent the views of his or her constituents even when personally holding different views; one interpretation of the role of legislator.
  28. Trustee
    An official who is expected to vote independently based on his or her judgment of the circumstances; one interpretation of the role of the legislator.
  29. Logrolling
    Mutual aid and vote trading among legislators.
  30. Attentive public
    Those citizens who follow public affairs closely.
  31. Discharge petition
    Petition that, if signed by majority of the House of Representatives’ members, will pry a bill from committee and bring it to the floor for consideration.
  32. Rider
    A provision attached to a bill – to which it may or may not be related – in order to secure its passage or defeat.
  33. Pocket veto
    A veto exercised by the president after Congress has adjourned; if the president takes no action for 10 days, the bill does not become law and does not return to Congress for possible override.
  34. Override
    An action taken by Congress to reverse the presidential veto, requiring a two-thirds majority in each chamber.
  35. Franking Privilege
    Incumbents do not have to pay postage on their mail to their district, except during the last 90 days before an election
  36. Unanimous Consent
    All members of HOR can agree to suspend the rules to bring an urgent topic to the table
  37. Quorum
    the HOR can vote on a quorum. This only requires 100 votes to pass something instead of a majorirty
  38. Party Conference
    the name for the party caucus for rebpuclians
  39. Policy Committee
    each party leader in the senate has a policy committee that helps monitor legislation and provide policy expertise
  40. Authorizing Committees
    • type of standing committee
    • laws that tell the gov what to do
    • Ex: House and Senate Education and Labor Committees
  41. Appropriations Committees
    • type of standing committee
    • how much money government will spend and where to spend it
  42. Rules and Administration Committees
    • type of standing committee
    • determine operative rules of the chambers
  43. Revenue and Budget Committees
    • type of standing committee
    • raising the money that appropriating committees will spend
    • Often provide less than the Appropriation Committees want
    • Taxes
  44. Norms of Specilization
    specialize in a couple of issues
  45. Norm of Senority
    defer to members with longer tenure in office
  46. Norm of Courtesy
    never criticize anyone personally
  47. Norm of Apprenticeship
    waiting turns to speak and introduce legislation

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