chapter 7 energy and nutrient relations

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chapter 7 energy and nutrient relations
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chapter 7 energy and nutrient relations
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  1. energy and nutrient relations
    how can organism be classified
    Organisms can be classified by trophic levels.
  2. energy and nurtrient relations
    what are autotrophs and how do they do what they do
    • Autotrophs use inorganic sources of carbon
    • and energy.

    • -  Photosynthetic: Use CO2 as
    • carbon source, and sunlight as energy.

    • -  Chemosynthetic: Use inorganic molecules as
    • source of carbon and energy.
  3. energy and nutrien relations
    what are heterotrophs
    • Heterotrophs use organic molecules as sources
    • of carbon and energy.
  4. energy flow through the ecosystem
    describe the food chain
    • -first tropic level-producers (plants)
    • -second tropic level-primary consumers (herbivores)
    • -third tropic level-secondary consumers (carnivores)
    • -fourth tropic level-tertiary consumers (top carnivores)
  5. energy flow through the ecosystem
    describe the food web
    • A
    • food web is a complex network of linked food-chains



    • •Omnivory
    • is common

    • •Many
    • links

    • •Few
    • specialists (petrel)
  6. Energy flow through ecosystems
    what is the first law of thermodynamics
    • First Law of Thermodynamics:  Energy cannot be created or
    • destroyed, only transformed from one form to another.
  7. Energy flow through ecosystems
    what is the second law of thermodynamics
    • Second Law of Thermodynamics: Energy
    • transformations and transfers are not 100% efficient.  Most energy is lost as heat during a
    • transformation or transfer.
  8. Energy flow through ecosystems
    what do the laws of thermodynamics cause
    •These physical laws cause:

    • •Food chains to be short because
    • energy transformations are inefficient.

    • • Omnivory to be widespread in
    • nature.

    • • Production of primary producers to
    • be many times higher than that of consumers.
  9. soalr radiation
    what is infrared
    • •Infrared (IR): 
    • Long-wavelength, heat.
  10. solar radiation
    what is ultraviolet
    • •Ultraviolet (UV): 
    • Short wavelength, high energy. 
    • Can destroy biological machinery.
  11. solar radiation
    what is photosynthetically active radiation
    • •Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR): Quantified as photon flux
    • density= number of photons striking square meter surface each second.  Chlorophyll absorbs light as photons
  12. solar energy
    the canopy absorbs what percent of PAR
    79
  13. solar radiation
    what percent of PAR is sent back
    10
  14. solar radiationj
    the ground and low vegitation absorb what amount of PAR
    2 each
  15. solar radiation
    plants in the middle layer absord what percent of PAR
    7
  16. what type of Photosynthesis is used by most plants and alge
    c3
  17. •Ancestral photosynthetic pathway
    c3
  18. C3 PhotEnergy
    how is (ATP) and reductant (NADPH)
    generated
    • Energy
    • (ATP) and reductant (NADPH)
    • generated from the “light-reaction
  19. C3 synthesis
     Photowhat is RuBP
    • •RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate, 5
    • carbon sugar
  20. C3 Photosynthesis
    what is rubiscos role is c3
    • •Rubisco (RuBP carbxylase/oxygenase) catalyzes synthesis of a 3 carbon
    • acid called 3-PGA (phosphoglyceric acid).
  21. C3 Photosynthesis
    what role does glyceraldehyde play in c3
    • •Glyceraldehyde - 3- phosphate
    • (G3P):  Precursor to sugars, template for
    • regeneration of RuBP
  22. c3 photosynthesis
    what is the goal of c3 and what are the parts of it.
    • -produce sucrose
    • -calvin and photosynthesis
  23. photorespiration
    what is photorespiration
    • light-mediated
    • production of CO2.
  24. c3
    RUBISCO
    why do CO2 and
    O2 compete for the same enzyme and
    the same substrate (RuBP).
    • RUBISCO
    • is both a carboxylase AND oxygenase. 
    • Thus, CO2 and
    • O2 compete for the same enzyme and
    • the same substrate (RuBP).
  25. c3
    how much 02 and co2 does rubisco fix
    Under normal circumstances, RUBISCO fixes approximately 1/3 to 1/4 as much O2 as CO2
  26. c3
    whatis c3 stimulated by
    • Stimulated
    • by
    • -high temperature
    • -light
    • -water stress
    • -low internal CO2
  27. C4 Photosynthesis
    how did c4 photosynthesis evolve
    • • Evolved from C3 photosynthesis in plants subjected
    • to high-light/temperature conditions
  28. C4 Photosynthesis
    where does the acid that is produced during carbon fixation diffuse
    • •Acids produced during carbon
    • fixation diffuse to specialized cells surrounding bundle sheath.
  29. C4 Photosynthesis
    what happens in the mesophyl in c4
    •PEP (Phosphoenolpyruvate) is the template

    • •PEP-carboxylase catalyzes synthesis
    • of  4-C acid from CO2 and PEP.
  30. C4 Photosynthesis
    what happens in the bundle sheath during c4
    In Bundle-sheath

    • CO2 generated from C4 acid

    • CO2 enters Calvin Cycle
  31. CAM
    what is CAM limited to
    • •Limited to succulent plants in arid
    • and semi-arid environments.
  32. CAM
    when does carbon fixation take place
    Carbon fixation takes place with PEP at night and RuBP during the day
  33. CAM
    what does CAM do
    • •Reduced water loss, extremely high
    • rates of water use efficiency.

    • -Low
    • rates of photosynthesis
  34. whats the difference between c4 and CAM
    -in CAM reactions are seperated by time, while in C4 they are seperated by space.
  35. where does atp come from in photosynthesis
    light reaction
  36. Using Organic Molecules:  Heterotrophs
    herbivores
    Herbivores: Feed on plants.

    • Must overcome plant physical
    • (cellulose; lignin; silica) and chemical (toxins) defenses and low nutrition.
  37. Using Organic Molecules:  Heterotrophs
    carnivores
    Carnivores: Feed on animal flesh.

    • Nutritionally-rich prey, must catch
    • and subdue prey
  38. Using Organic Molecules:  Heterotrophs
    detrivores
    • Detritivores: Feed on non-living organic
    • matter.

    • Consume food rich in carbon and
    • energy, but poor in nitrogen and may rich in chemical defenses.
  39. Using Inorganic Molecules
    what uses inorganic molecules as a source of energy for synthesizing organic molecules
    • Chemosynthetic bacteria:  Use other inorganic molecules as a source of
    • energy for synthesizing organic molecules
  40. Using Inorganic Molecules
    what uses nutrients discharged from
    volcanic activity through oceanic rift.
    • Organisms
    • found living on sea floor deep in the ocean use nutrients discharged from
    • volcanic activity through oceanic rift.
  41. Photosynthetic Light Response Curves
    what is pmax
    • •Pmax =
    • maximum rate of net photosynthesis at saturating PAR.
  42. Photosynthetic Light Response Curves
    what is the quantum yield
    • •Quantum yield = light use
    • efficiency.
  43. Photosynthetic Light Response Curves
    what is the light compensation point
    Light compensation point = PAR level where net photosynthesis = 0
  44. Food Density and Animal Functional
    Response
    what is type 1
    • •Type 1: Linear intake rate, time
    • needed to handle food is negligible, and/or food intake does not interfere with
    • searching. linear
  45. Food Density and Animal Functional
    Response
    what is type 2
    • •Type 2. Decelerating
    • intake rate, consumer is limited by its capacity to handle food (wolves and
    • caribou). no longer linear/ half n
  46. Food Density and Animal Functional
    Response
    what is type 3
    • •Type 3. Accelerating intake rate, consumers
    • require higher search time when
    • prey densities are low, but
    • an increase in their ability to find and subdue prey as density increases (deer
    • mice and sawflies) . halp u/ exponential
  47. Food Density and Animal Functional
    Response
    what happens when the rate of energy intake saturates?
    • Where
    • the rate of energy intake saturates
    • with respect to prey density, energy intake becomes limited by internal rather
    • than external constraints.
  48. optimal foraging theory
    what is the optimal foraging theory eqution
    E = NiEi - Cs

    • Energy
    • intake (E) is a function of the energy
    • gained by consuming a prey item i (Ei), the number of prey i
    • encountered per unit time (Ni), and the cost incurred by
    • searching for the prey item  (Cs), so
    • that

    T = 1+ NiHi

    • If
    • organisms are foraging “optimally” they should be maximizing their energy
    • intake (E) per unit time (T):  

    • divide e by t
    • S NiEi - Cs/1 + S NiHi
  49. optimal foraging theory
    what does the optimal foraging theory predict
    • Optimal
    • foraging theory predicts that a predator will be a specialist (eat only 1 type of prey) when: they can get more caloes from one animal than by finding multiple animals
  50. optimal foraging theory
    when does it pay to specialize on a high energy prey item
    • • If adding additional prey items increases handing time (H) then it pays to specialize on a
    • high energy prey item.

    • •If the energy expended for searching for prey (Cs)
    • becomes too high, then it pays to specialize on a high energy prey item.
  51. optimal foraging theory
    when will a preditor be considered a generalist
    • In contrast, optimal foraging theory predicts that a predator will be a generalist (eat more than 1 type of prey)
    • when:

    they need to eat more prey in order to have more energy than fromeating one (opposite of a specialist)

    • •If the energy expended for searching for prey (Cs)
    • remains low, then it pays to generalize and consume many prey items.
  52. optimally foraging theory
    when do plants optimally forage
    • Under low N availability, plants grow more roots, which enables the plant to acquire
    • more of the resource that is most limiting.

    • When soil N availability is high, plants allocate more resources to above ground
    • tissue (leaves and stems) to capture more PAR, which enables higher rates of
    • photosynthesis and growth.

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