AMH2020 Test 1 Study Guide

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TheseFights
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237805
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AMH2020 Test 1 Study Guide
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2013-10-17 03:50:50
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american history
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Chapters 15-19
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  1. Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
    when 10% of a rebellious state's voters had taken an oath of loyalty, the state would be restored to the Union providing it approved the Thirteenth Amendment
  2. Lincoln's reaction to the Wade-Davis Bill on Reconstruction
    issued a pocket veto to kill bill, left the document unsigned while working for a compromise
  3. President Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction
    offered amnesty to all southerners who swore allegiance to the US including Confederate leaders, appointed provisional governors for southern states and required only that they revoke secession, reject Confederate debts, and ratify 13th Amendment
  4. Southern whites responded to the end of slavery with
    Black Codes to force former slaves into plantation labor
  5. Freedmen's Bureau
    established by Congress to aid former slaves, gave it direct funding and authorized it's agents to investigate mistreatment of blacks
  6. n 1866, President Johnson vetoed the Freedmen's Bureau law and Civil Rights Act because
    he was racist
  7. Under President Johnson's restoration plan, high-ranking Confederate leaders and wealthy Southerners excluded from amnesty
    got pardons and got into politics
  8. Congress enacted the Civil Rights Act in April 1866 after learning of
    President Johnson's racist views
  9. Which of the following were Radical Republicans?
    Charles Summer in Senate, Thaddeus Stevens in House; they sought sweeping transformations in the defeated South
  10. The underlying reason Congress impeached Andrew Johnson was because
    he suspended Secretary of War Stanton for Union general Ulysses S. Grant; he infringed on the powers of Congress
  11. The Fifteenth Amendment
    protected male citizens' right to vote despite of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
  12. Southerners avoided giving freed slaves the right to vote by
    implementing a poll tax and literacy requirements
  13. Why was it necessary to add the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution?
    in response to rebellious states that wanted to deny blacks basic rights
  14. Which reform is most closely connected with the Grant administration?
    Radical Reconstruction and women's suffrage
  15. Granting African American males the right to vote
    punished ex-Confederates and ensured Republican support in the South
  16. Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the woman suffrage movement after the Civil War?
    it was divided into two groups, one that sided with Republicans and were patient, another that was radical and wanted exclusive rights for women
  17. Expecting freedom from slavery near the end of the Civil War, most African Americans were eager to
    own land, move around, read/write, vote
  18. The Southern Republican Party included which of the following?
    former Whigs, former Democrats, black and white Northerners and southern blacks
  19. Most scalawags were
    southern whites who supported Reconstruction; from the backcountry and wanted to rid the South of it's slaveholding aristocracy
  20. Southern Republican state Reconstruction governments pursued all of the following except
    eliminated property qualifications and Black Codes, gave married women freedom to own land and wages independent from their husbands, established free healthcare, free legal representation, helped women, blacks, orphans, and the sick; NO DESEGREGATION
  21. According to the textbook, the most impressive achievement of the Republican state Reconstruction governments was
    public education for blacks, women, and the poor
  22. Which of the following is true of the Civil Rights Act of 1875?
    the law required full and equal access to jury service, transportation, and public accommodations (except for churches and schools) irrespective of race
  23. The first Grand Wizard or leader of the Ku Klux Klan was former Confederate general
    Nathan Bedford Forrest
  24. Southern whites used which of the following methods to undermine and resist Reconstruction?
    political (re-enstating voting rights to ex-Confederates), violent (KKK)
  25. Reconstruction ended mostly because
    economic depression, a chasm in goals between freedmen and policymakers, ex-Confederates refusal to accept Reconstruction
  26. The president who had the most trouble with Congress was
    Grant
  27. During and after the Civil War, the Republican Congress implemented its economic vision for the United States by doing all of the following except
    launched the transcontinental rail project, developing a new national banking system, passed the Homestead Act, and raised the protective tariff
  28. States and the federal government encouraged railroad building through which of the following ways?
    loans, subsidies, land grants and by buying railroad bonds
  29. In the 1870s and 1880s, protective tariffs covered which industry?
    textile, steel manufacturing, sheep ranching
  30. Which constitutional amendment did the Supreme Court most use in the 1870s–1890s to protect the rights of corporations—even though it had been written to protect individual rights?
    the 14th Amendment: no state could deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
  31. The United States adopted the gold standard in the 1870s for its currency for all of the following reasons except
    people were finding too much silver that would upset the balance of silver/gold (to limit the nation's money supply),
  32. The United States encouraged Chinese immigration through such means as the Burlingame Treaty (1868) partially to
    Seward thought trade with Asia was the key to America's future; Chinese laborers were already working in America
  33. Which of the following was associated with the Homestead Act of 1862?
    Westward expansion by American/European families; Department of Agriculture mapped areas and found natural resources
  34. The Exodusters were
    African Americans who left the South to the west to be freed from poverty and white oppression
  35. “The largest, longest-run agricultural and environmental miscalculation in American history” refers to
    the destruction of the biodiversity of the Great Plains
  36. Which Indian tribe was pursued 1,100 miles and forced to surrender just south of the Canadian border?
    Nez Perce
  37. The dominant northern Plains Indian tribe was the
    Dakota Sioux
  38. The largest mass execution in American history took place as a result of
    a Dakota uprising in Minnesota after money meant for the tribes was stolen by corrupt officials
  39. Which of the following statements regarding the Sand Creek Massacre is correct?
    Chivington's militia killed over 100 Cheyenne women and children in Colorado; the Cheyenne banded together with the Arapahos and Sioux and attacked the US army in the plains and closed the Bozeman Trail to Montana
  40. Which president most refashioned America's Indian policy?
    Grant created a Peace Policy
  41. White reformers, such as those who created the Indian Rights Association, advocated the
    use of religion to tame Indians
  42. Reformers believed that the best way to save the Indians was through
    the destruction of native languages, cultures and religions
  43. Why did Indians view reformers as just another white interest group?
    because they sent mixed messages and changed treaties often
  44. The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
    divided reservations into homesteads where Indians could individually own land and become independent from the tribe
  45. As a result of the Dawes Severalty Act, Indian tribes
    lost 66% of their individually allotted lands through fraud
  46. Which factor is most responsible for destroying the Indian reservation system established by the United States government?
    the Dawes Act dividing reservation land and Indians being conned out of it
  47. The leader of the Sioux warriors who annihilated the forces led by Colonel George A. Custer on June 25, 1876, was
    Sitting Bull
  48. Following the Sioux victory at Little Big Horn, the United States
    used this to justify American conquest. Indians were pursued and starved until they gave up and surrendered to the government
  49. The Apache warrior who resisted the U.S. government until 1886 was
    Geronimo
  50. How did native peoples adapt to and survive reservation life and attempts at assimilation?
    they kept their native traditions but also assimilated and went to school to become powerful and help their tribes
  51. All of the following are true of the Ghost Dance movement of the late 1880s except
    drew on Christian and native elements to try to drive whites out; was misunderstood as the beginning of a war between Indians and whites
  52. The last great Indian “battle” was against the Sioux
    Wounded Knee
  53. Which of the following resulted from industrialization in the decades after the Civil War?
    the westward expansion of the US to the Pacific
  54. As American industry expanded in the late nineteenth century, its energy source shifted from
    steam to coal
  55. Vertically integrated corporations
    one company controls production from raw materials to finished goods
  56. All of the following statements accurately characterize the life and work of John D. Rockefeller except
    grain dealer, avoided Civil War, borrowed to start oil company and believed in vertical/horizontal integration, allied with railroad executives
  57. In the late 1800s, American corporations innovated in all of the following ways except
    research, chains, advertising
  58. A major reason that by 1900 the United States had become the leading steel producer in the world was
    Carnegie's Bessemer converter that refined iron into steel
  59. All of the following correctly describe the role of middle managers in large corporations except
    directing flow of goods, labor, and information; key innovators who worked to reduce costs and improve efficiency
  60. Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the employment of women in the American labor force during the late nineteenth century?
    in 1900 more than 4 million women worked; third in domestic service, third in industry, and another third in offices, teaching, nursing
  61. A result of mass production was that
    more control of workers and lower labor costs, fewer skilled workers
  62. The introduction of mass production in the late-nineteenth-century American economy
    made things cheaper, faster
  63. A result of scientific management was that
    eliminate brain work, withdraw worker's authority; expensive to implement and workers resisted
  64. Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the economics of working-class family life in late-nineteenth-century America?
    one out of every 5 children worked outside the home
  65. “New” immigration patterns in the early twentieth century reflected the growing emigration from
    Europe
  66. The federal government responded to the problem of discrimination against the Chinese in nineteenth-century California by
    passing the Chinese Exclusion Act which barred laborers from entering the US
  67. What were the greatest factors in defining occupational opportunity in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century?
    gender and ethnicity
  68. Which of the following is an example of a trade union?
    National Grange, Knights of Labor, Farmer's Alliance
  69. Why has the labor movement always been relatively weak in American politics?
    industrial workers cluster in cities and were underrepresented in state legislature
  70. Which of the following resulted from the Great Railroad Strike of 1877?
    US transportation came to a halt, more than 50 people died and $40 million worth of damage; participants were fined and blacklisted
  71. Many farmers denounced the railroads and called for their regulation or public ownership for all the following reasons except that railroads
    had built their lines with government money but charged unequal rates that favored giant manufacturers and exploited ordinary people
  72. The Haymarket incident in 1886
    German protesters killed policemen, and the policemen opened fire; caused damage to the labor movement
  73. The labor movement supported all of the following except
    political solutions to exploitation of working people, attempts to regulate corporation, organizing skilled workers to negotiate directly with employers
  74. All of the following were elements of the Victorian ideal of domesticity except
    masculine restraint and female moral influence
  75. Which of the following statements best characterizes family life in the late 1800s?
    families decreased in size
  76. The typical American middle-class family in 1900 consisted of husband, wife, and
    3 children
  77. Which of the following was true for middle-class families in the late nineteenth century?
    children worked, but parents who had fewer children could concentrate on the ones they had more
  78. Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes changes in the lives of middle-class American children in the last decades of the century?
    instead of working they went to school
  79. Why did school attendance rise significantly in the latter decades of the nineteenth century?
    more education for more lucrative jobs
  80. All the following correctly characterize Booker T. Washington except
    born in slavery, wrote a book and went to school, founded the Tuskegee Institute which focused on industrial education
  81. Between 1880–1920, higher education for women was
    coed
  82. The Women's Christian Temperance Movement (WCTU) was the first national movement to
    identify and combat domestic violence
  83. In the late nineteenth century, social Darwinists, such as William Graham Sumner, believed
    human society advanced through competition and survival of the fittest
  84. Which of the following statements correctly describes Charles Darwin's theories as laid out in his book, On the Origin of the Species?
    all creatures struggle to survive, random genetic mutations that benefit them in an environment are passed down; natural selection is blind
  85. Which of the following statements correctly characterizes the impact of eugenicist thinking in the early twentieth century?
    20,000 people had been sterilized
  86. The invention that most changed urban and suburban communications in the United States after 1876 was the
    telephone
  87. Which of the following made the growth of skyscrapers possible?
    invention of steel girders, durable plate glass, and elevators
  88. For ordinary Americans of the late nineteenth century, the invention that probably offered the most dramatic evidence of changing urban life was the
    electric light
  89. Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes residential patterns in the typical American city around 1900?
    there were different ethnic neighborhoods but everyone lived by their economic class
  90. Which level of government saw the most corruption in the late 1800s?
    state government and big corporations
  91. Urban political machines in the late nineteenth century did all of the following except
    relied on the support of immigrants, served the needs of the party faithful, acted as a social service agency
  92. Which is not true of Tammany Hall?
    favored honest graft, built public works and clean water, sewage removal, stopped the spread of cholera
  93. Women entered prostitution in urban cities for all of the following reasons except
    low-wage jobs, desperation, and sexual abuse
  94. Hull House offered which of the following to its low-income clients?
    bathhouse, playground, kindergarten, and day care
  95. Jane Addams and Florence Kelley became famous advocates for
    working class women and children

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