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How many calories in a kilocalorie?
1 kilocalorie=1000 calories
What is thermodynamics?
Study of energy
What is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
energy can neither be created nor destroyed. thus the amount of energy in the universe remains constant.
What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics?
everything in the universe is heading towards maximum disorder. the measure of the degree of disorganization is called entropy.
Most chemicals are NOT spontaneous. They require an input of energy to break existing bonds to form new ones. What is the input of energy called?
Energy of activation.
What are nonspontaneous reactions called?
What are spontaneous reactions called?
Exergonic-release free energy into environment.
There are two kinds of reactions what are they called?
these reactions produce things that have high potential energy.
the energy is stored in covalent bonds.
eg. photosynthesis-producing sugars from Co2, H2O and sunlight.
example: cellular respiration where glucose is broken down chemically and the energy released is either stored in ATP or given off as heat.
What is Cellular metabolism?
All endergonic and exergonic reactions added together.
What is ATP used for?
Used as an intermediate source of fuel for endergonic reactions and is the most important energy currency of the cell.
What is ATP?
currency of cell-like having dollars in your wallet.
Why is ATP such a high energy compound?
Phosphate groups are- very charged and repel each other stressing the phosphate bonds= high energy.
Potential and kinetic energy.