Anatomy Exam #2

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michaelirby98
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237811
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Anatomy Exam #2
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2013-09-29 23:40:49
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Skeletal System Articulations Muscular
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Skeletal System, Articulations, Muscular System
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  1. Functions of Skeletal System
    • Support 
    • Protect vital organs
    • Movement
    • Blood Cell Formation (Hemopoiesis)
    • Mineral Storage (Calcium and Phosphate)
  2. Long Bone
    Most bones appendages
  3. Short Bone
    Carpals and Tarsals
  4. Flat Bones
    • Cranial 
    • Sternum
    • Ribs
    • Scapulae
  5. Irregular Bone
    • Vertebrae 
    • Ossa Coxae
    • Certain facial bones
    • Calcaneus
  6. Sesamoid Bone
    Form in tendons:

    Patella and Pisiform
  7. Osteoprogenitor Cell
    • -Stem cells from mesenchyme
    • -Give rise to osteoblasts and Osteocytes
    • -Periosteum, endosteum, central canal
  8. Osteoblasts
    • -Secret matrix into bone (osteoid)
    • -Become Osteocytes
  9. Osteocytes
    • -Maintain matrix
    • -Basically trapped Osteoblasts
    • -Detect mechanical stress
    • -Rest in small spaces called lacunae
  10. Osteoclasts
    • -Large, multinucleated, phagocytic cells
    • -Derived from bone marrow
    • -Bone resorption (breakdown extracellular matrix)
    • *Hydrochloric acid dissolves minerals
    • *Lysosomal enzymes digest protein
    • *Liberates calcium and phosphate ions
    • -Concentrated in endosteum and periosteum
  11. Bone Matrix
    • Matrix
    • -25% Water
    • -25% Protein(collagen)-Provides flexability
    • -50% Mineral Salts- Provide hardness

    • Calcification
    • -Crystallization of mineral salts
    • -Initiated by bone-building cells (Osteoblasts)

    *Bone contains many spaces between cells and matrix. Compact Bone&Spongy Bone
  12. Spongy Bone/Cancellous Bone
    • -Light; supports & protects red bone marrow
    • -Consists of trabeculae (little beams)
    • -Trabecular arranged along lines of stress
    • -Located in areas under less stress
    • -Within epiphyses of long bone & interior of long, short, flat irregular bone
  13. Dense Bone/Compact Bone
    • -Dense; Solid
    • -Strongest form of bone
    • -Forms outer surface of bones & Diaphysis of long bone
    • -Consists of Osteons
  14. Bone Development
    • Ossification- replacement of pre-existing C.T tissue with bone
    • -Begins in embryo
    • -Size increases till late teens(female) to late twenties(males)
    • Ossification include: Intramembranous bone formation and Endochondral bone formation 
    • -Both process result in both types of bone tissue
  15. Intramembranous Ossification
    • -Bone forms withing sheet-like layers of mesenchyme
    • -Occurs in flat bone of skull, zygomatic, maxilla, mandible, clavicles
    • -Frontanels
  16. Endochondral Ossification
    • -Bone forms within hyaline cartilage
    • -Most bones form through this process
    • -Initial cells develop from mesenchyme
  17. Intersitital growth
    • -Bone Lengthening 
    • -Occurs during ossification & at epiphyseal plate
  18. Appositional Growth
    • -Bone growth in thickness
    • -Occurs within periostuem
    • -Osteoblasts produce circumferential lamellae
    • -New bone is added to outer surface
    • -Osteoclasts widen medullary cavity
  19. Bone Remodeling
    The continual deposition of new bone CT and the removal(Resorption) of old bone CT.

    • -Helps maintain calcium and phosphate levels
    • -
  20. Bone Resorption
    Bone Deposition
    The two processes of Bone Remodeling

    • 1) Osteoclasts break down matrix (remove mineral & collagen fibers)
    • 2) Osteoblast secrete matrix (add mineral & collagen fibers
  21. Benefits of Bone Remodeling
    • -Alters bone in response to stress
    • -Removes injured bone
    • -New bone is more resistant to fracture
  22. Compound vs Simple fracture
    • Compound - Broken bone protrudes through the skin
    • Simple- Bone does not penetrate skin
  23. Comminuted Fracture
    Splintered, crushed; small pieces between broken ends.

    - Usually in elderly and most difficult to treat
  24. Greenstick fracture
    Partial fracture; One side breaks, other side bends

    -Found in children
  25. Impacted Fracture
    One end of fractured bone is forcefully driven into other end
  26. Spiral Fracture
    Fracture spirals around long bone axis from twisting forces
  27. Pott's Fracture
    At the distal end of fibula, tibia or both
  28. Colles' Fracture
    Distal end of radius
  29. Stress Fracture
    • -Fracture without visible break
    • -Microscopic fissures
    • -No apparent damage to surrounding tissue
    • -Result from repeated, strenuous activity
    • -Can result from reduced calcium
    • -25% involve tibia
  30. 4 steps to fracture repair
    • -Fracture Hematoma
    • -Fibrocartilaginous Callus (soft)
    • -Bony Callus (hard)
    • -Bone Remodeling
  31. Fracture Hematoma
    • -Blood vessels break
    • -Mass of blood forms around fracture site
    • -Fracture Hematoma forms
  32. Fibrocartilaginous Callus
    • -Fibroblasts from periosteum invade fracture, secret collagen fibers, forming procallus
    • -Chondroblasts differentiate from cells in periosteum & secrete fibrocartilage
    • -Soft, fibrocartilaginous callus forms
  33. Bony Callus
    • -Osteoprogenitor cells develop into osteoblasts
    • -Osteoblasts secrete spongy bone
    • -Fibrocartilage is converted to spongy bone & hard, bony callus forms.

    *Then moves into bone remodeling
  34. Fraction repair- Bone Remodeling
    • -Dead portions of bone fragments removed by osteoclasts
    • -Spongy bone is replaced by compact bone around periphery
    • -Osteoclasts remove excess bone from interior & exterior surfaces
    • -Mineral deposition is gradual; bone cells grow & reproduce slowly
  35. Metopic Suture
    Persistent Suture

    (eg Frontal Suture)
  36. Gomphosis
    • -Between roots of teeth & alveoli of mandible and Maxilla 
    • -Periodontal Ligament
    • -Synarthrosis (no movement)
  37. Synchondrosis
    • - Articulation in which bones are joined by hyaline cartilage CT
    • -Synarthroses 

    • E.g. Epiphyseal plate (binds epiphyses&diaphysis) / Sternocostal joint
    • -
  38. Synovial Fluid
    • -Hyaluronic acid & interstital fluid (Blood plasma)
    • -Lubricates and absorbs shock
    • -Supplies oxygen and nutrients to cartilage
    • -Contain phagocytes that Removes waste and harmful particles
  39. Synovial Joints
    • -Contain joint cavity
    • -Articular Cartilage covers articular surfaces
    • -Fibrous layer/outer layer attaches to the periosteum 
    • -Synovial Membranes - Inner; secretes synovial fluid 

    *Fibrous layer is dense CT the strengthens the joint to prevent bones from being pulled apart
  40. Articular Cartilage
    • -Found in synovial joints
    • -Reduces friction 
    • -Made of hyaline cartilage
  41. Ligaments
    • -Composed of Dense regular CT
    • -Attach bone to bone
  42. Tendons
    • -Connect bone to muscle
    • -Dense regular CT
  43. Tendon Sheaths
    -Lube-like bursa that wrap high friction tendons (wrists, ankle, shoulder, digits)
  44. Bursa
    • -Sacs of CT lined with synovial membrane
    • -Contain synovial fluid
    • -Reduce friction between bones and: Skin, tendons, bones, ligaments, and muscles.
  45. Gliding/ Plane Joint
    • -Simplest type of Synovial Joint
    • -Flat articular surfaces
    • -Least movable diarthroses 
    • -Uniaxial 
    • (Intercarpal & intertarsal joints)
  46. Condylar Joint
    • -Type of Synovial Joint
    • -Biaxial 
    • -Flexion/Extension
    • -Abduction/Adduction
    • (Metacarpophalangeal joints)
  47. Pivot Joint
    • -Type of Synovial Joint
    • -Uniaxial
    • -Rotation around longitudinal axis
    • (Dens of Axis and articular facet of Atlas)
  48. Hinge Joint
    • -Type of Synovial Joint
    • -Convex surface fits in concave depression
    • (elbow and knee joints)
  49. Saddle Joint
    • -Type of Synovial Joint
    • -Triaxial
    • -Flexion/Extension
    • -Abduction/Adduction
    • -Rotation

    (Thumb- Trapezium & 1st metacarpal)
  50. Ball and Socket Joint
    • -Type of Synovial Joint
    • -Triaxial
    • -Flexion/Extension
    • -Abduction/Adduction
    • -Rotation

    (Hip and shoulder joint only)
  51. Symphysis
    • -Pad of Fibrocartilage CT
    • -Resist compression/Tension stresses
    • -Acts as a resilient shock absorber 
    • -Amphiarthroses 

    (Intervertebral Discs & Pubic Symphysis)
  52. 3 Structural Classifications of Joints
    • Fibrous - Dense reg CT
    • *Joins bones - Gomphosis & Sutures 
    • *Synarthroses
    • Cartilaginous - Cartilage joins bones
    • *Pubic Symphysis / Intervertebral Disc
    • *Amphiarthroses 
    • Synovial  - Fluid filled joint cavity
    • *Separates bones, ligaments join bones, and capsule surrounds
    • *Most joints 
    • *Diarthroses
  53. Syndesmosis
    • -Interosseous Ligament (strands of dense CT)
    • -Between radius/ulna & tibia/fibula
    • -Amphiarthroses
  54. 3 Functional Classifications of Joints
    • -Synarthroses- Immobile 
    • -Amphiarthroses- Slightly movable 
    • -Diarthroses- Freely movable
  55. Muscle Excitability
    Excitability- Ability to respond to certain stimuli by generating action potential
  56. Muscle Contractility
    Contractility- Ability to contract when stimulated; may result in movement
  57. Muscle Extensibility
    Extensibility- Ability to stretch w/out damage; allow contraction even if already streatched
  58. Muscle Elasticity
    Elasticity- Ability to return to original length and shape after contraction or extension
  59. Functions of Skeletal Muscle
    • -Produce Body movement 
    • -Stabilize body position
    • -Temp regulation
    • -Regulate movement of urine/feces
    • -Support viscera
  60. Superficial Fascia (fat)
    • -Subcutaneous layer
    • -Areolar CT & Adipose CT
    • -Provides pathway for nerves, blood, lumph vessels to enter and exit muscles
  61. Epimysium
    -Surround each muscle/Fascicle bundles
  62. Deep Fascia
    • -Between Muscles & around muscle groups 
    • -Blends & attaches to tendons
    • -Dense irregular CT
  63. Perimysium
    -Around each fascicle
  64. Endomysium
    • -Around each muscle fiber 
    • -Electrically insulate fibers
  65. Aponeuroses
    • Sheet-like arrangements of dense regular CT
    • Attaches muscles to bone, sking or other muscles
  66. Sarcolemma
    Plasma membrane of skeletal muscle fiber
  67. T-tubules
    • Tiny, deeply penetration invaginations of sarcolemma.
    • Open to outside; filled with interstitial fluid 
    • Quickly transports muscle impulse from sarcolemma to entire muscle
  68. Sarcoplasm
    • Glycogen for ATP synthesis 
    • Myoglobin binds oxygen 
    • Site for normal muscle fiber activities
  69. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
    • Smooth E.R.
    • Stores and releases Ca2+ used for muscle contraction
  70. Terminal Cisternae
    • Bind sacs next to T-Tubules 
    • Site of calcium ion release to promote muscle contraction
  71. Myofibirls
    • Organized bundles of myofilaments (protein) 
    • Long as the muscle itself
    • Contractile organelles 
    • contain myofilaments that are responsible for muscle contraction
  72. Thin Myofilament
    • Contains Actin and regulatory proteins
    • Tropomyosin - covers sections of actin
    • Troponin- Attaches to actin & tropomyosin/ Binding site for calcium
  73. Thick myofilament
    • Contain Myosin.
    • Myosin heads can attach to actin forming corss bridges
  74. Sarcomeres
    • Chains of sarcomeres make up myofibrils
    • Contractile units 
    • Source of fibers striations
  75. A (dark) Bands
    Correspond to length of myosin filaments
  76. I (light) bands
    Actin (NO MYOSIN) and titan
  77. Z line/disc
    Anchor for actin; separates sarcomeres
  78. H zone
    Center of A band; NO ACTIN
  79. Motor Neurons
    • Deliver the stimulus
    • Each fiber is controlled by one motor neuron
  80. Neuromuscular Junction
    Point of communication between a mototr neuron and a fiber
  81. Synaptic Knob
    • An expanded end of the axon 
    • Nerve impulses travel from the axon to the synaptic knob
  82. Synaptic Vesicles
    • Lay within the  cytoplasm of synaptic knob 
    • Sac like structure Contain the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
  83. Morot End Plate
    • Sarcolemma of the NMJ
    • Invaginated
    • Contains ACh receptors
  84. Synaptic Cleft
    Space between the synaptic knob and Motor end plate
  85. Steps in Contraction/ Sliding filament theory
    • Nerve impulses arrive at synaptic knob
    • Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine diffuses across cleft
    • ACh binds to receptors on sarcolemma 
    • Muscle impulse spreads along fiber to T-Tubules
    • SR releases Ca2+ from terminal cisternae
    • Myosin heads attach to actin/Cross bridges
    • Myosin heads pivot
    • Actin is pulled toward center
    • ATP binds to myosin and is broken down
    • Sarcomeres shorten, fiber contracts
  86. "All or none" principle
    • A fiber will contract to its maximum extent or not at all
    • Singel nerve impulse produces one contraction
  87. Motor Unit
    • A muscle is composed of motor units
    • Motor Unit = A motor neuron+all the fibers it controls 
    • Each motor unit responds independently 
    • All muscle cells in a motor unti respond maximally, or they dont respond at all
  88. Activity of motor units
    • Strength of contraction is determined by number of motor units stimulated'
    • Recruitment: Process of increasing the number of motor units responding 
    • Strength increases as number of motor units increase
  89. Types of muscle fibers
    • Slow Fibers
    • Fast glycolytic 
    • Intermediate Fibers
  90. Slow fibers
    • Smallest in diameter 
    • High myoglobin content & many capillaries 
    • Numerous mitochondria 
    • Require oxygen to make ATP
    • Slow twitch, fatigue resistant 
    • Endurance and posture
  91. Fast Glycolytic
    • Largest in Diameter 
    • Most powerful
    • Less myoglobin, few mito and capillaries 
    • white in color 
    • Faster energy from ATP
    • Contract strongly, quickly and fatigue rapidly 
    • Sprinting and weight lifting
  92. Intermediate Fibers
    • Intermediate in diameter, speed of contraction and resistance to fatigue
    • High myoglobin, and many capillaries
    • Energy from ATP faster
    • Faster, shorter contractions
    • Walking and Biking
  93. Circular Muscles
    • Aka sphincter
    • Located at entrances and exits of internal passageways
  94. Parallel Muscles
    • Run parallel to long axis, with central "belly"
    • (rectus abdominis, masseter, bicep brachii)
  95. Convergent Muscles
    • Widespread fibers converge at common attachment
    • Often triangular shaped 

    (Pectoralis major)
  96. Pennate Muscle
    • Have one of more tendons run most of the length of muscle; short fasicicles
    • Pull fibers at an angle 
    • Unipennate- Extensor Digitorum 
    • Bipennate- Rectus Femoris 
    • Multipennate- Deltoid
  97. Muscle Tone (tonus) Contraction
    Continuous, partial contractions in relaxed muscles
  98. Isotonic Contraction
    Contraction in which muscle shortens, tensions remains constant as movement occurs
  99. Isometric Contraction
    Contraction in which muscle is unable to shorten & stay the same length, tension increases
  100. Hypertrophy
    • Enlargement of muscle cells due to exercise 
    • The number of actin, myosin myofilaments, Mitochondria, and blood supply increase
  101. Atrophy
    Decrease in the size of musclecells due to the lack of use 

    The number of Actin, Myosin myofilaments, mitochondria, and blood supply decreases
  102. Lever
    A rigid rod that moves about a fixed point
  103. Fulcrum
    The fixed point around which a lever moves (joints)
  104. Forces applied to levers
    • Resistance force- Force to be overcome 
    • Effort Force- Force required to over come resistance; supplied by skeletal muscles
  105. First Class Lever
    When the fulcrum is between the effot and the resistance 

    Seesaw, tilting head backwards
  106. Second Class Lever
    Resistance is between the fulcrum and the lever 

    Wheelbarrow, standing tip toed
  107. Third Class Lever
    The effort/force is between the fulcrum and the resistance

    -Most common, flexing the elbow

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