BIO 181 UNIT 2 REVIEW
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Why are we looking at proteins when we were discussing cell membranes?
What monomers are proteins made of?
How are proteins put together?
A chain of amino acids together in the right order, held together by peptide bonds
What is the special name for this type of bond?
Is there something special about a peptide bond?
Must be in their tertiary structure to do their job
Why is hydrogen bonding important for proteins?
What are the 4 levels of proteins conformation or structure?
- 1. Primary
- 2. Secondary
- 3. Tertiary
- 4. Quanternary
What is primary structure?
Sequence of Amino Acids
What is secondary structure and how is it held together?
- Interactions between backbone constituents
- Coil & Folds
- Hydrogen bonds
What is tertiary structure and how is it held together?
- Consist of irregular contortions from bonding between R groups.
- One factor is hydrophobic
What is Quaternary structure and how is it held together?
When 2 or more proteins have been folded into tertiary shape
What is the name of the reaction when you separate amino acids from a peptide chain?
What is the term for when a protein loses its shape or conformation?
Denaturation and Renaturation
Why does this happen on a molecular level?
What are the 3 conditions that can cause Denaturation and Renaturation?
What are some of the jobs that proteins do in and on the membrane?
- They serve as channel
- They are appendages
What are integral proteins? Peripheral proteins?
- Integral Proteins- inserted into membrane
- Peripheral- not embedded at all
What is the size of most Prokaryotic cells like bacteria?
1 - 10 micrometers
What is the size of most Eukaryotic cells?
What are the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic does not have a nucleus
Name some of the cell parts for Prokaryotic and what they are for:
- Ribosomes - assembles proteins
- Plasma Membrane - selection of substances
- Cell Wall - keeps structure
- Cytoplasm - fluid inside cell
Name some of the cell parts for Eukaryotes and what they are for:
- Plasma - Serves as a barrier to regulate nutrients
- Nucleus - Contains DNA
- Ribosome - Assembles proteins
- Endomembrane system - A system of membranes
What does this equation represent?
C6H12O6+6 O2 -> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP
And where does it occur?
- It occurs on the cellular respiration.
What does this equation represent?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + LIGHT ENERGY -> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Where does it occur?
- It occurs in the Chloroplast
What are some of the things that all cells need to do?
- Release energy
- Build other molecules besides proteins
- Move substances
- Maintain their structure and shape
- Obtain nutrients
What are membranes made of?
What are phospholipids made of?
- Polar head
- Non polar tails
What holds membranes together?
Membranes are held together by hydrophobic interaction/expulsion of water.
How do membranes remain fluid?
Unsaturated fats helps retain fluid
What is the main characteristic of membranes?
They are fluid ( they move around and are not fixed in place)
What does semi- or selectively permeable mean?
What can and cannot enter the membrane
What is the simplest way for a material to get through a membrane?
What is diffusion?
Movement from higher to lower concentration
What can diffuse through cell membranes?
What is the special name for the diffusion or movement of water?
Does water actually diffuse through cell membrane?
What is the type of movement that water does and why?
What is the name of the channel that water uses?
What is active transport?
Molecule that requires energy to transport to be transported "against" their gradient.
What is a concentration gradient?
Position of different concentrations of a substance.
What are solutes?
The molecules or compounds that get dissolve in water.
Why does water move across the cell membrane when different concentrations of solutes are presented inside and outside the cell?
it moves until equilibrium is reached.
What is isotonic?
- Equal solutes
- Water goes in and out equally
How do larger materials get into cells?
How do larger materials get out of cells?
What would you like to do?
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