Card Set Information

2013-10-02 23:24:52
Proteins cells

Review for Unit 2
Show Answers:

  1. Why are we looking at proteins when we were discussing cell membranes?
  2. What monomers are proteins made of?
    Amino acids
  3. How are proteins put together?
    A chain of amino acids together in the right order, held together by peptide bonds
  4. How does that work?
  5. What is the special name for this type of bond?
    Peptide bond
  6. Is there something special about a peptide bond?
    Must be in their tertiary structure to do their job
  7. Why is hydrogen bonding important for proteins?
  8. What are the 4 levels of proteins conformation or structure?
    • 1. Primary
    • 2. Secondary
    • 3. Tertiary
    • 4. Quanternary
  9. What is primary structure?
    Sequence of Amino Acids
  10. What is secondary structure and how is it held together?
    • Interactions between backbone constituents
    • Coil & Folds
    • Hydrogen bonds
  11. What is tertiary structure and how is it held together?
    • Consist of irregular contortions from bonding between R groups.
    • One factor is hydrophobic
  12. What is Quaternary structure and how is it held together?
    When 2 or more proteins have been folded into tertiary shape
  13. What is the name of the reaction when you separate amino acids from a peptide chain?
  14. How does this work?
  15. What is the term for when a protein loses its shape or conformation?
    Denaturation and Renaturation
  16. Why does this happen on a molecular level?
  17. What are the 3 conditions that can cause Denaturation and Renaturation?
    • Heat
    • pH
    • Salt
  18. Why?
  19. What are some of the jobs that proteins do in and on the membrane?
    • They serve as channel
    • They are appendages
  20. What are integral proteins? Peripheral proteins?
    • Integral Proteins- inserted into membrane
    • Peripheral- not embedded at all
  21. What is the size of most Prokaryotic cells like bacteria?
    1 - 10 micrometers
  22. What is the size of most Eukaryotic cells?
    100 micrometers
  23. What are the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?
    Prokaryotic does not have a nucleus
  24. Name some of the cell parts for Prokaryotic and what they are for:
    • Ribosomes - assembles proteins
    • Plasma Membrane - selection of substances
    • Cell Wall - keeps structure
    • Cytoplasm - fluid inside cell
  25. Name some of the cell parts for Eukaryotes and what they are for:
    • Plasma - Serves as a barrier to regulate        nutrients
    • Nucleus - Contains DNA
    • Ribosome - Assembles proteins
    • Endomembrane system - A system of membranes
  26. What does this equation represent?
    C6H12O6+6 O2 -> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP
    And where does it occur?
    • Mitochondria
    • It occurs on the cellular respiration.
  27. What does this equation represent?
    6 CO2 + 6 H2O + LIGHT ENERGY -> C6H12O6 + 6 O
    Where does it occur?
    • Photosynthesis
    • It occurs in the Chloroplast
  28. What are some of the things that all cells need to do?
    • Release energy
    • Build other molecules besides proteins
    • Move substances
    • Maintain their structure and shape
    • Obtain nutrients
  29. What are membranes made of?
    • Phospholipids
    • Protein
  30. What are phospholipids made of?
    • Polar head
    • Non polar tails
  31. What holds membranes together?
    Membranes are held together by hydrophobic interaction/expulsion of water.
  32. How do membranes remain fluid?
    Unsaturated fats helps retain fluid
  33. What is the main characteristic of membranes?
    They are fluid ( they move around and are not fixed in place)
  34. What does semi- or selectively permeable mean?
    What can and cannot enter the membrane
  35. What is the simplest way for a material to get through a membrane?
  36. What is diffusion?
    Movement from higher to lower concentration
  37. What can diffuse through cell membranes?
    • Oxygen
    • Water
    • Carbon
    • Nitrogen
    • Urea
  38. What is the special name for the diffusion or movement of water?
  39. Does water actually diffuse through cell membrane?
  40. What is the type of movement that water does and why?
  41. What is the name of the channel that water uses?
  42. What is active transport?
    Molecule that requires energy to transport to be transported "against" their gradient.
  43. What is a concentration gradient?
    Position of different concentrations of a substance.
  44. What are solutes?
    The molecules or compounds that get dissolve in water.
  45. Why does water move across the cell membrane when different concentrations of solutes are presented inside and outside the cell?
    it moves until equilibrium is reached.
  46. What is isotonic?
    • Equal solutes
    • Water goes in and out equally
  47. How do larger materials get into cells?
  48. How do larger materials get out of cells?