Final Review Cards

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medic11
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Final Review Cards
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2010-06-16 11:13:03
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  1. Explain respiration Vs ventilation.
    Resp is gas exchange at resp membrane in the lungs or capillaries where as ventilation is the mechanical act of moving air in & out of lungs
  2. What happens to the diaphram during inhalation?
    It contracts, moving inferiorly, creating more vol in the thoracic cavity
  3. What are digestive functions (exocrine) of the pancreas?
    • Secretes digestive enzymes aiding in breakdown of chyme
    • Secretes digestive buffers neutralizing acidity of chyme
  4. What are digestive functions of the liver?
    • Produces & secretes bile
    • Aids in storage & release of nutrients
    • Aids in filtration of toxins fr blood
  5. What are digestive functions of gallbladder?
    Stores & concentrates bile secreted into duodenum
  6. What is the purpose of bile salts?
    Emulsification of fats
  7. What is Chronotropy?
    Refers to heart rate
  8. What is Inotropy?
    It refers to contractility or force of contraction of the heart
  9. What is Dromotropy?
    It refers to conductivity or conduction of nervous impulses through the heart
  10. What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on tropic properties?
    It increases chronotropy, inotropy & dromotropy
  11. What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation on tropic properties?
    It decreases chronotropy, inotropy & dromotropy
  12. When does negative feedback occur?
    • When a variation outside normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation
    • ie the thermostat p14
  13. When does positive feedback occur?
    • This occurs when the initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus
    • ie blood clotting p15
  14. Describe supine.
    Lying face up
  15. Describe prone.
    Lying face down
  16. What are the 9 anatomical regions of the abdomin?
    • R hypochondriac -> Epigastric -> L hypochondriac
    • R lumbar -> Umbilical -> L lumbar
    • R inguinal -> Hypogastric -> L inguinal
  17. What organs are located in the R hypochondriac region?
    Part of the liver
  18. What organs are located in the Epigastric region?
    Liver & Stomach
  19. What organs are located in the L hypochondriac region?
    Part of the stomach & the spleen
  20. What organs are located in the umbilical region?
    Gall Bladder, Lg & sm intestine,
  21. What organs are located in the hypogastric region?
    Appendix, urinary bladder
  22. Differentiate anterior & posterior.
    Anterior is the fron or b/f where as posterior is the back or behind
  23. Differentiate between dorsal & ventral.
    Dorsal is the back (similar to posterior) where as ventral is the belly side (similar to anterior).
  24. Differentiate between cranial & caudal.
    Cranial is toward the head where as caudal is toward the tail or coccyx
  25. What is the parietal covering on an organ & give an example?
    Parietal covering is the lining of the body cavity ie parietal pericardium
  26. What is the visceral covering on an organ & give an example?
    The visceral covering is the one that comes in contact w/ the organ directly ie visceral pericardium
  27. Matter exists in 3 states _____, ____ & ____.
    Solid, liquid & gas
  28. Matter is composed of ____ which is made up of ____.
    Elements, Atoms
  29. An atom is comprised of ____, ____ & ____.
    • Protons
    • Neutrons
    • Electrons
  30. Protons & Neurons have mass. T or F
    True
  31. Electrons have ____ mass.
    no
  32. What are the charges of protons, neutrons & electrons?
    • protons = +
    • neutron = no charge
    • electrons = -
  33. What makes up the nucleus of an atom?
    Protons & neutrons
  34. Where are electrons located in an atom?
    In hypothetical shells or orbits around the nucleus
  35. What makes up the atomic number?
    Number of protons in the atom
  36. What is the name for the cell wall?
    Cell membrane or lipid bylayer
  37. What is the lipid bilayer made up of?
    phosphobilipids w/a hydrophilic head & hydrophobic tail
  38. What are the advantages of the lipid bilayer?
    selective permiability
  39. What is the goo in a cell called?
    cytoplasm
  40. What is the purpose of microvilli?
    To increase surface area of the cell for absorption or secretion
  41. What are the purpose of cilia?
    Motor activities only - use ATP to rhythmically move the cell itself of things by the cell
  42. What is contained in the nucleus of a cell?
    • DNA
    • Bldg blocks to make RNA
    • Machinery to make DNA into RNA
  43. What do mitocondria in a cell do?
    • Energy factory for the cell
    • Raw fuel of O2 & glucose turned into ATP
  44. What do lysosomes do?
    Engulfs damaged or infected cells
  45. What is diffusion?
    Net movement of molecules fr an area of high concentration to an area of relatively low concentration
  46. What is a concentration gradient?
    the difference between high & low concentrations
  47. What is osmosis?
    Movement of solvents to settle a solute difference or a gradient
  48. What is osmotic pressure?
    Physical pressure that overcomes the pressure of gravity
  49. What are characteristics of an isotonic solution?
    • No net movement of H2O or Equilibrium
    • Solvent/Solute concentrations same inside & outside cell
  50. What are characteristics of hypotonic solution?
    • Solvent on outside has lower solute concentration than inside
    • Net movement of H2O is into the cell
    • Could cause cell to lyse or break
  51. What are characteristics of hypertonic solution?
    • Higher concentration of solute outside cell
    • Net movement of H2O out of the cell
    • Cell will crenate or dehydrate
  52. What is filtration?
    • Passive process that works by hydrostatic pressure
    • ie BP causes filtration @ the sm vessels & urine production in kidneys
  53. Muscarinic receptors are found in the ____ nervous system.
    Parasympathetic
  54. In the parasympathetic NS, preganglionic nerves are ____ than postganglionic?
    Preganglionic is longer
  55. What is the neurotransmitter @ receptors in Parasympathetic NS?
    Acetylcholine (ACH)
  56. In the Sympathetic NS, preganglionic nerves are ____ than postganglionic
    Shorter
  57. Fig 1 #1
    corniculate cartilage
  58. Fig 1 #2
    Glottis
  59. Fig 1 #3
    Cuniform cartilage
  60. Fig 1 #4
    False vocal cord
  61. Fig 1 #5
    vocal cord
  62. Fig 1 #6
    epiglottis
  63. Fig 1 #7
    false vocal cord
  64. Fig 1 # 8
    corniculate cartilage
  65. Fig 1 #9
    cuneform cartilage
  66. Fig 1 #10
    vocal cord
  67. Fig 1 #11
    epiglottis
  68. Fig 1 #12
    Hyoid Bone
  69. Fig 1 #13
    Thyroid Cartilage
  70. Fig 1 #14
    Cricoid Cartilage
  71. Some pts w/gallstones develop pancreatitis b/c . . . .
    Gall stones block ducts that carry bile fr pancreas to gall bladder causing backup into pancreas
  72. Fig 2 #1
    pyloris
  73. Fig 2 #2
    pyloric sphincter
  74. Fig 2 #3
    Lesser Curvature
  75. Fig 2 #4
    Body
  76. Fig 2 #5
    Esophagus
  77. Fig 2 #6
    Cardia
  78. Fig 2 #7
    Fundus
  79. Fig 2 #9
    rugae
  80. The inferior, pointed tip of the heart is called the ____, while the superior rounded end of the heart is called the ____.
    • Apex
    • Base
  81. The inferior portion of the lungs is called the ____ while the superior portion is called ___.
    • Base
    • Apex
  82. Alpha 1 receptor are in the? Agonism does what to them? Antagonism?
    • Peripheral blood vessels
    • vasoconstriction
    • prevents vasoconstriction
  83. Alpha 2 receptors are in the?
    peripheral blood vessels
  84. Beta 1 receptors are in the ____? Agonism does what? Antagonism?
    • Heart
    • ^ 3 tropic properties
    • decrease or block tropic properties
  85. Beta 2 receptors re found in the ____. Agonism does what? Antagonism?
    • Lungs
    • Bronchodilation
    • Bronchoconstriction
  86. Each flap of the atrioventricular valves is supportive by connective tissue fibers called ____ ____ which are connected to ____ muscles.
    • Chordae Tendonae
    • Papillary
  87. Cardiac output = ___ ____ x ____ ____.
    Stroke volume X HR
  88. What effect does sympathetic stimulation have on tropic properties?
    Increases all 3 tropic properties
  89. What effect does parasympathetic stimulation have on tropic properties?
    Decreases all 3 tropic properties
  90. If the SA node failed to function how would HR be effected?
    HR would slow
  91. Use fig 3 (12-15) & name 3 labeled sections & discus which Ion channels are open & closed & direction ions are flowing.
    • 1. Depolarization - Na channels open & Na rushes in
    • 2. Plateau - Na channels close, Ca channels open & Ca rushes in, Na actively pumped out by Na/K exchange pump
    • 3. Repolarization - Na channels close, Ca channels close, K channels open & K rushes out
  92. 38 #1
    Inferior venacava
  93. 38 #2
    Right AV (tricuspid)
  94. 38 #3
    Right atrium
  95. 38 #4
    fossa ovalis
  96. 38 #5
    Superior Vena Cava
  97. 38 #6
    Aortic Arch
  98. 38 #7
    Pulmonary Artery
  99. 38 #8
    Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
  100. 38 #9
    L & R Pulmonary Veins
  101. 38 #10
    L AV valve or mitral or bicuspid
  102. 38 #11
    Chordae Tendonae
  103. 38 #12
    Papillary Muscles
  104. 38 #13
    L ventricle
  105. 38 #14
    Interventricular Septum
  106. 38 #15
    R ventricle
  107. 39 #1
    SA Node
  108. 39 #2
    Internodal
  109. 39 #3
    AV Node
  110. 39 #4
    Bundle of His
  111. 39 #5
    L bundle branch
  112. 39 #6
    R bundle branch
  113. 39 #7
    Purkinji Fibers
  114. 40 #1
    L Coronary Artery
  115. 40 #2
    Left Circumflex
  116. 40 #3
    L anterior descending coronary artery
  117. 40 #4
    R coronary artery
  118. Trace blood flow through the heart using diagram or list.
    IVC & SVC -> R atria -> R AV Valve -> R ventricle -> Pulmonary Semilunar Valve -> Lungs -> L atria -> L AV Valve -> L ventricle -> Aortic Semilunar Valve -> Body
  119. The Na/K pump pumps OUT ____ molecules of ____ & ____ molecules of ____ IN in each cycle
    • 3 molecules of NA OUT
    • 2 molecules of K IN
  120. Which branch of the PNS provides voluntary ctrl over skeletal muscles?
    Somatic
  121. Which branch of PNS provides automatic involuntary ctrl over the body?
    autonomic
  122. Nervous # 7 A,B,C,D,E
    • A= synaptic terminals
    • B= Dendrites
    • C= Cell Body
    • D= Nucleus
    • E= Axon
  123. Chlolinergic synapses release the neurotransmitter ____.
    ACH
  124. Adrenergic snyapses release the neurotransmitter ____.
    Epi & Norepi
  125. The neurotransmitter in cholinergic synapses is removed fr the synapse by ____.
    ACHE
  126. The neurotransmitter in adrenergic synapses is removed fr the synapse by ____.
    MAO
  127. Give basic description of resting potential.
    • Membrane potential of an undisturbed cell
    • Action of ATP driven Na/K exchange pump maintains concentration gradients of Na & K & maintains imbalance of elec charges across cell membrane of an undisturbed cell
  128. Describe the generation & propagation of an action potential.
    • Action potential arrives, Na rushes in & membrane depolarizes
    • Na channels deactivate & voltage regulated K channels activate causing wave of repolarization
    • Na/K exchange pump brings cell back to resting potential
  129. What are the 12 cranial nerves?
    • O olfactory
    • O optic
    • O oculomotor
    • T trochlear
    • T trigeminal
    • A abducens
    • F facial
    • V vestibulocochlear
    • G glossopharengeal
    • V vagus
    • A accessory
    • H hypoglossal
  130. What # is Olfactory & what does it do?
    #I - sense of smell
  131. Nerve #II is ____ & it ctrls what?
    • Optic
    • sends images - retna
  132. Nerve # III is ____ & it ctrls what?
    • Oculomotor
    • 4 of 6 muscles of the eye
  133. Nerve # IV is ____ & it ctrls what?
    • Trochlear
    • Smallest nerve - muscles in the eye
  134. Nerve # V is ____ & ctrls what?
    • Trigeminal
    • Chewing muscles
  135. Nerve #VI is ____ & ctrls what?
    • Abducens
    • Oblique muscles of the eye
  136. Nerve #VII is ____ & ctrls what?
    • Facial
    • Scalp & muscles of face
  137. Nerve #VIII is ____ & ctrls what?
    • Vestibulocochlear
    • Balance, Position
  138. Nerve #IX is ____ & ctrls what?
    • Glossopharyngeal
    • Tongue & pharnyx
  139. Nerve #X is ____ & ctrls what?
    • Vagus
    • Automatic smooth & cardiac muscle functions
  140. Nerve #XI is ____ & ctrls what?
    • Accessory
    • Voluntary muscles of palate, pharynx & larynx
  141. Nerve #XII is ____ & ctrls what?
    • Hypoglossal
    • Tongue muscles
  142. What are the 3 meninges fr superficial to deep?
    • Dura mater
    • Arachnoid
    • Pia Mater
  143. Afferent nerve fibers carry nerve impulses ____ the brain/CNS
    to
  144. Efferent nerve fibers carry nerve impulses ____ the brain/CNS
    from
  145. See #25 Nervous Sys exam!
  146. What is a neurotransmitter?
    • Molecule or chemical that facilitates communication within a synapse
    • ie GABA, ACH, ACHE
  147. Describe the relationship between CO2 & pH.
    • As CO2 levels rise pH drops & pt becomes acidotic
    • As CO2 levels fall pH rises & alkalosis develops
  148. What is the neurotransmitter @ an adrenergic synapse?
    Norepi
  149. The Na/K exchange pump maintains a gradient of Na & K ions across the cell membrane. ____ is more concentrated inside the cell & ____ is more concentrated outside the cell.
    • K
    • Na
  150. The normal pH range of the body is ____ to ____.
    7.35 to 7.45
  151. Where is calcitonin produced?
    Thyroid
  152. Describe cilia.
    Moves materials across surfaces
  153. Describe microvilli?
    Increases cell surface area to facilitate absorption of extra cellular materials
  154. Describe the nucleus.
    • Ctrls metabolism
    • Stores & processes genetic info
    • Ctrl protein synthesis
  155. Describe Mitocondria.
    Produces 95% of ATP required by the cell
  156. Calcitriole, EPO & renin are secreted by the ____ in response to ____.
    • Kidneys
    • PTH
  157. What are the 3 tasks of the spleen?
    • Pesents blood to the cells of the lymphatic sys
    • Means for lymphatic sys to monitor levels of antigens & deal w/ specific ones
    • Filtering out or destroying old or damaged RBCs & storing iron fr them
  158. What does the large intesitne do?
    Absorbs H2O & compacts feces

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