Final Review Cards
Card Set Information
Final Review Cards
Final Exam Cards
Final Exam Cards
Explain respiration Vs ventilation.
Resp is gas exchange at resp membrane in the lungs or capillaries where as ventilation is the mechanical act of moving air in & out of lungs
What happens to the diaphram during inhalation?
It contracts, moving inferiorly, creating more vol in the thoracic cavity
What are digestive functions (exocrine) of the pancreas?
Secretes digestive enzymes aiding in breakdown of chyme
Secretes digestive buffers neutralizing acidity of chyme
What are digestive functions of the liver?
Produces & secretes bile
Aids in storage & release of nutrients
Aids in filtration of toxins fr blood
What are digestive functions of gallbladder?
Stores & concentrates bile secreted into duodenum
What is the purpose of bile salts?
Emulsification of fats
What is Chronotropy?
Refers to heart rate
What is Inotropy?
It refers to contractility or force of contraction of the heart
What is Dromotropy?
It refers to conductivity or conduction of nervous impulses through the heart
What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on tropic properties?
It increases chronotropy, inotropy & dromotropy
What is the effect of parasympathetic stimulation on tropic properties?
It decreases chronotropy, inotropy & dromotropy
When does negative feedback occur?
When a variation outside normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation
ie the thermostat p14
When does positive feedback occur?
This occurs when the initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus
ie blood clotting p15
Lying face up
Lying face down
What are the 9 anatomical regions of the abdomin?
R hypochondriac -> Epigastric -> L hypochondriac
R lumbar -> Umbilical -> L lumbar
R inguinal -> Hypogastric -> L inguinal
What organs are located in the R hypochondriac region?
Part of the liver
What organs are located in the Epigastric region?
Liver & Stomach
What organs are located in the L hypochondriac region?
Part of the stomach & the spleen
What organs are located in the umbilical region?
Gall Bladder, Lg & sm intestine,
What organs are located in the hypogastric region?
Appendix, urinary bladder
Differentiate anterior & posterior.
Anterior is the fron or b/f where as posterior is the back or behind
Differentiate between dorsal & ventral.
Dorsal is the back (similar to posterior) where as ventral is the belly side (similar to anterior).
Differentiate between cranial & caudal.
Cranial is toward the head where as caudal is toward the tail or coccyx
What is the parietal covering on an organ & give an example?
Parietal covering is the lining of the body cavity ie parietal pericardium
What is the visceral covering on an organ & give an example?
The visceral covering is the one that comes in contact w/ the organ directly ie visceral pericardium
Matter exists in 3 states _____, ____ & ____.
Solid, liquid & gas
Matter is composed of ____ which is made up of ____.
An atom is comprised of ____, ____ & ____.
Protons & Neurons have mass. T or F
Electrons have ____ mass.
What are the charges of protons, neutrons & electrons?
protons = +
neutron = no charge
electrons = -
What makes up the nucleus of an atom?
Protons & neutrons
Where are electrons located in an atom?
In hypothetical shells or orbits around the nucleus
What makes up the atomic number?
Number of protons in the atom
What is the name for the cell wall?
Cell membrane or lipid bylayer
What is the lipid bilayer made up of?
phosphobilipids w/a hydrophilic head & hydrophobic tail
What are the advantages of the lipid bilayer?
What is the goo in a cell called?
What is the purpose of microvilli?
To increase surface area of the cell for absorption or secretion
What are the purpose of cilia?
Motor activities only - use ATP to rhythmically move the cell itself of things by the cell
What is contained in the nucleus of a cell?
Bldg blocks to make RNA
Machinery to make DNA into RNA
What do mitocondria in a cell do?
Energy factory for the cell
Raw fuel of O2 & glucose turned into ATP
What do lysosomes do?
Engulfs damaged or infected cells
What is diffusion?
Net movement of molecules fr an area of high concentration to an area of relatively low concentration
What is a concentration gradient?
the difference between high & low concentrations
What is osmosis?
Movement of solvents to settle a solute difference or a gradient
What is osmotic pressure?
Physical pressure that overcomes the pressure of gravity
What are characteristics of an isotonic solution?
No net movement of H2O or Equilibrium
Solvent/Solute concentrations same inside & outside cell
What are characteristics of hypotonic solution?
Solvent on outside has lower solute concentration than inside
Net movement of H2O is into the cell
Could cause cell to lyse or break
What are characteristics of hypertonic solution?
Higher concentration of solute outside cell
Net movement of H2O out of the cell
Cell will crenate or dehydrate
What is filtration?
Passive process that works by hydrostatic pressure
ie BP causes filtration @ the sm vessels & urine production in kidneys
Muscarinic receptors are found in the ____ nervous system.
In the parasympathetic NS, preganglionic nerves are ____ than postganglionic?
Preganglionic is longer
What is the neurotransmitter @ receptors in Parasympathetic NS?
In the Sympathetic NS, preganglionic nerves are ____ than postganglionic
Fig 1 #1
Fig 1 #2
Fig 1 #3
Fig 1 #4
False vocal cord
Fig 1 #5
Fig 1 #6
Fig 1 #7
false vocal cord
Fig 1 # 8
Fig 1 #9
Fig 1 #10
Fig 1 #11
Fig 1 #12
Fig 1 #13
Fig 1 #14
Some pts w/gallstones develop pancreatitis b/c . . . .
Gall stones block ducts that carry bile fr pancreas to gall bladder causing backup into pancreas
Fig 2 #1
Fig 2 #2
Fig 2 #3
Fig 2 #4
Fig 2 #5
Fig 2 #6
Fig 2 #7
Fig 2 #9
The inferior, pointed tip of the heart is called the ____, while the superior rounded end of the heart is called the ____.
The inferior portion of the lungs is called the ____ while the superior portion is called ___.
Alpha 1 receptor are in the? Agonism does what to them? Antagonism?
Peripheral blood vessels
Alpha 2 receptors are in the?
peripheral blood vessels
Beta 1 receptors are in the ____? Agonism does what? Antagonism?
^ 3 tropic properties
decrease or block tropic properties
Beta 2 receptors re found in the ____. Agonism does what? Antagonism?
Each flap of the atrioventricular valves is supportive by connective tissue fibers called ____ ____ which are connected to ____ muscles.
Cardiac output = ___ ____ x ____ ____.
Stroke volume X HR
What effect does sympathetic stimulation have on tropic properties?
Increases all 3 tropic properties
What effect does parasympathetic stimulation have on tropic properties?
Decreases all 3 tropic properties
If the SA node failed to function how would HR be effected?
HR would slow
Use fig 3 (12-15) & name 3 labeled sections & discus which Ion channels are open & closed & direction ions are flowing.
1. Depolarization - Na channels open & Na rushes in
2. Plateau - Na channels close, Ca channels open & Ca rushes in, Na actively pumped out by Na/K exchange pump
3. Repolarization - Na channels close, Ca channels close, K channels open & K rushes out
Right AV (tricuspid)
Superior Vena Cava
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
L & R Pulmonary Veins
L AV valve or mitral or bicuspid
Bundle of His
L bundle branch
R bundle branch
L Coronary Artery
L anterior descending coronary artery
R coronary artery
Trace blood flow through the heart using diagram or list.
IVC & SVC -> R atria -> R AV Valve -> R ventricle -> Pulmonary Semilunar Valve -> Lungs -> L atria -> L AV Valve -> L ventricle -> Aortic Semilunar Valve -> Body
The Na/K pump pumps OUT ____ molecules of ____ & ____ molecules of ____ IN in each cycle
3 molecules of NA OUT
2 molecules of K IN
Which branch of the PNS provides voluntary ctrl over skeletal muscles?
Which branch of PNS provides automatic involuntary ctrl over the body?
Nervous # 7 A,B,C,D,E
A= synaptic terminals
C= Cell Body
Chlolinergic synapses release the neurotransmitter ____.
Adrenergic snyapses release the neurotransmitter ____.
Epi & Norepi
The neurotransmitter in cholinergic synapses is removed fr the synapse by ____.
The neurotransmitter in adrenergic synapses is removed fr the synapse by ____.
Give basic description of resting potential.
Membrane potential of an undisturbed cell
Action of ATP driven Na/K exchange pump maintains concentration gradients of Na & K & maintains imbalance of elec charges across cell membrane of an undisturbed cell
Describe the generation & propagation of an action potential.
Action potential arrives, Na rushes in & membrane depolarizes
Na channels deactivate & voltage regulated K channels activate causing wave of repolarization
Na/K exchange pump brings cell back to resting potential
What are the 12 cranial nerves?
What # is Olfactory & what does it do?
#I - sense of smell
Nerve #II is ____ & it ctrls what?
sends images - retna
Nerve # III is ____ & it ctrls what?
4 of 6 muscles of the eye
Nerve # IV is ____ & it ctrls what?
Smallest nerve - muscles in the eye
Nerve # V is ____ & ctrls what?
Nerve #VI is ____ & ctrls what?
Oblique muscles of the eye
Nerve #VII is ____ & ctrls what?
Scalp & muscles of face
Nerve #VIII is ____ & ctrls what?
Nerve #IX is ____ & ctrls what?
Tongue & pharnyx
Nerve #X is ____ & ctrls what?
Automatic smooth & cardiac muscle functions
Nerve #XI is ____ & ctrls what?
Voluntary muscles of palate, pharynx & larynx
Nerve #XII is ____ & ctrls what?
What are the 3 meninges fr superficial to deep?
Afferent nerve fibers carry nerve impulses ____ the brain/CNS
Efferent nerve fibers carry nerve impulses ____ the brain/CNS
See #25 Nervous Sys exam!
What is a neurotransmitter?
Molecule or chemical that facilitates communication within a synapse
ie GABA, ACH, ACHE
Describe the relationship between CO2 & pH.
As CO2 levels rise pH drops & pt becomes acidotic
As CO2 levels fall pH rises & alkalosis develops
What is the neurotransmitter @ an adrenergic synapse?
The Na/K exchange pump maintains a gradient of Na & K ions across the cell membrane. ____ is more concentrated inside the cell & ____ is more concentrated outside the cell.
The normal pH range of the body is ____ to ____.
7.35 to 7.45
Where is calcitonin produced?
Moves materials across surfaces
Increases cell surface area to facilitate absorption of extra cellular materials
Describe the nucleus.
Stores & processes genetic info
Ctrl protein synthesis
Produces 95% of ATP required by the cell
Calcitriole, EPO & renin are secreted by the ____ in response to ____.
What are the 3 tasks of the spleen?
Pesents blood to the cells of the lymphatic sys
Means for lymphatic sys to monitor levels of antigens & deal w/ specific ones
Filtering out or destroying old or damaged RBCs & storing iron fr them
What does the large intesitne do?
Absorbs H2O & compacts feces