Micro Chapter 3

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Micro Chapter 3
2013-10-01 13:12:41
cell structure function

chapter 3 cell structures and functions
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  1. what are the 3 major types of cells?
    • 1-bacterial
    • 2-archaeal
    • 3-eukaryotic
  2. what are the four characteristics of life?
    • growth
    • reproduction
    • responsiveness
    • metabolism
  3. true or false?
    cells are living entities surrounded by a membrane that are capable of growing, reproducing responding and metabolizing
  4. define organelles
    specialized structures that act like tine organs to carry on the various functions of the cell
  5. true or false?
    eukaryotes are usually large and more complex than prokaryotes
  6. what is glycolalyces?
    a sticky substance that surrounds the outside of the cell
  7. what is glycocalyces composed of?
    polysaccharides or polypeptide or both
  8. a loose, water-soluble glycocalyx is called?
    slime layer
  9. what are some roles bacterial glycocalyx?
    to protect the cell and plays a role in the ability of the bacteria to survive and cause disease
  10. what is flagella?
    the structure responsible for the bacterial movement, long extensions that propel the cell through the environment
  11. what is flagella composed of?
    • a long thin filament
    • a hook
    • a basal body
  12. what are the 3 flagella arrangements?
    • 1-peritrichous-many flagellas
    • 2-polar-single flagella in top or bottom side
    • 3-tuft of polar-single hook with a couple of thinner flagella
  13. what is endoflagella?
    bacteria that have the flagella built into the cell structure which causes the whole cell to move in a spiral like motion
  14. what produces "runs" in flagella?
    the counterclock flagellar movement
  15. what causes"tumbles" in the flagella?
    when flagellan align and spin together causing abrupt random changes in cell movement
  16. what does taxis mean in the motility of bacteria?
    movement in response to stimuli
  17. what are the two forms of taxis?
    • phototaxis=movement caused by light
    • chemotaxis=movement caused by chemicals
  18. what is positive taxis?
    the movement towards a favorable stimulus
  19. what is negative taxis?
    the movement away from unfavorable environment
  20. define fimbriae
    a sticky, bristle like projections-to adhere to one another or substances in the environment
  21. define Pili
    tubes composed of a protein called pilin
  22. what is the function of Pili?
    pili mediate the transfer of DNA from cell to another cell
  23. what does cocci mean?
    it means spherical shape
  24. what does strepcocci mean?
    single or in clains
  25. what does staphylococci mean?
    clusters of cell wall
  26. what does sarcinae mean?
    it means cuboidal packets
  27. what does bacilli mean?
    it means rod-shaped cells typically in chains
  28. what are bacterial cell walls composed of?
    peptidoglycan a complex polysaccharide
  29. what is peptidogycan composed of?
    • its composed of two alternating sugar molecules.
    • 1-NAG= N-acetylglucosamine
    • 2-NAM= N-acetylmuramic acid
  30. how are NAG and NAM bonded?
    they are bonded via covalent bonds
  31. cytoplamic membrane can also be referred to ask what?
    cell membrane or plasma membrane
  32. what does isotonic mean?
    when the solutions of either side of membrane experiences a net loss or gain of water
  33. what does hypertonic mean?
    when the solutions are unequal one with a higher concentration of solutes
  34. what does hypotonic mean?
    when there is a lower concentration on one side of the cell membrane
  35. what does uniport mean?
    when only one substance can be transported across a cell membrance
  36. what does anti-porter mean?
    when two chemicals are simultaneously transported across cell membrane in opposite direction
  37. what are symporters?
    protein transporters that move two or more substances at the same time
  38. what is group translocation?
    an active process that occurs only in some bacteria. the process involves a chemical change in a substance that is being transported
  39. what is cytoplasm
    a general term used to describe the gelatinous material
  40. what is cytoplasm composed of?
    cytosol, inclusions, ribosomes and many cells and a cytoskeleton
  41. what is cytosol?
    the liquid portion of the cytoplasm
  42. what are inclusions?
    a reserve deposit for lipids, starch and nitrogen, phosphate or sulfur
  43. what does sporulation mean?
    the formation of endospores
  44. define nucleus
    referred to as the control center because it carries the cells DNA
  45. what is nucleoplasm?
    the semiliquid portion of the cell
  46. what are Nucleoli?
    a specialized region where RNA is synthesized
  47. what is chromatin?
    a threadlike mass of DNA inside the nucleus
  48. what is endoplasmic reticulum? or ER
    is netlike arrangement of flattened hollow tubules
  49. what is the function of ER?
    a transport system for the cell
  50. what are the two forms of ER?
    • smooth endoplasmic reticulum SER
    • rough endoplasmic reticulum RER
  51. what is the function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum? SER
    it plays a role lipid synthesis and transport