Micro Chapter 3
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Micro Chapter 3
cell structure function
chapter 3 cell structures and functions
what are the 3 major types of cells?
what are the four characteristics of life?
true or false?
cells are living entities surrounded by a membrane that are capable of growing, reproducing responding and metabolizing
specialized structures that act like tine organs to carry on the various functions of the cell
true or false?
eukaryotes are usually large and more complex than prokaryotes
what is glycolalyces?
a sticky substance that surrounds the outside of the cell
what is glycocalyces composed of?
polysaccharides or polypeptide or both
a loose, water-soluble glycocalyx is called?
what are some roles bacterial glycocalyx?
to protect the cell and plays a role in the ability of the bacteria to survive and cause disease
what is flagella?
the structure responsible for the bacterial movement, long extensions that propel the cell through the environment
what is flagella composed of?
a long thin filament
a basal body
what are the 3 flagella arrangements?
2-polar-single flagella in top or bottom side
3-tuft of polar-single hook with a couple of thinner flagella
what is endoflagella?
bacteria that have the flagella built into the cell structure which causes the whole cell to move in a spiral like motion
what produces "runs" in flagella?
the counterclock flagellar movement
what causes"tumbles" in the flagella?
when flagellan align and spin together causing abrupt random changes in cell movement
what does taxis mean in the motility of bacteria?
movement in response to stimuli
what are the two forms of taxis?
phototaxis=movement caused by light
chemotaxis=movement caused by chemicals
what is positive taxis?
the movement towards a favorable stimulus
what is negative taxis?
the movement away from unfavorable environment
a sticky, bristle like projections-to adhere to one another or substances in the environment
tubes composed of a protein called pilin
what is the function of Pili?
pili mediate the transfer of DNA from cell to another cell
what does cocci mean?
it means spherical shape
what does strepcocci mean?
single or in clains
what does staphylococci mean?
clusters of cell wall
what does sarcinae mean?
it means cuboidal packets
what does bacilli mean?
it means rod-shaped cells typically in chains
what are bacterial cell walls composed of?
peptidoglycan a complex polysaccharide
what is peptidogycan composed of?
its composed of two alternating sugar molecules.
2-NAM= N-acetylmuramic acid
how are NAG and NAM bonded?
they are bonded via covalent bonds
cytoplamic membrane can also be referred to ask what?
cell membrane or plasma membrane
what does isotonic mean?
when the solutions of either side of membrane experiences a net loss or gain of water
what does hypertonic mean?
when the solutions are unequal one with a higher concentration of solutes
what does hypotonic mean?
when there is a lower concentration on one side of the cell membrane
what does uniport mean?
when only one substance can be transported across a cell membrance
what does anti-porter mean?
when two chemicals are simultaneously transported across cell membrane in opposite direction
what are symporters?
protein transporters that move two or more substances at the same time
what is group translocation?
an active process that occurs only in some bacteria. the process involves a chemical change in a substance that is being transported
what is cytoplasm
a general term used to describe the gelatinous material
what is cytoplasm composed of?
cytosol, inclusions, ribosomes and many cells and a cytoskeleton
what is cytosol?
the liquid portion of the cytoplasm
what are inclusions?
a reserve deposit for lipids, starch and nitrogen, phosphate or sulfur
what does sporulation mean?
the formation of endospores
referred to as the control center because it carries the cells DNA
what is nucleoplasm?
the semiliquid portion of the cell
what are Nucleoli?
a specialized region where RNA is synthesized
what is chromatin?
a threadlike mass of DNA inside the nucleus
what is endoplasmic reticulum? or ER
is netlike arrangement of flattened hollow tubules
what is the function of ER?
a transport system for the cell
what are the two forms of ER?
smooth endoplasmic reticulum SER
rough endoplasmic reticulum RER
what is the function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum? SER
it plays a role lipid synthesis and transport