2.1

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efrain12
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237902
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2.1
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2013-10-01 10:56:47
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muscle mechanics and control
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  1. (structure of skeletal muscle) Epimysium (2)
    -outer most tissue covering the muscle

    -forms the over coat of the muscle

    *separates the muscle from the neighboring ones
  2. (structure of skeletal muscle) What is the perimysium? (2)
    -within the skeletal muscle

    -wraps a group of muscle fibers (cells)
  3. (structure of skeletal muscle) What do fasciciles contian?
    individual muscle fibers
  4. (structure of skeletal muscle) what is each muscle fiber surrounded by?
    connective tissue called endomysium
  5. (structure of skeletal muscle) what are endomysium?
    they surround individual muscle cells
  6. What is a neurovascular bundle?
    contains the blood vessells and the nerves to a muscle
  7. What do veins remove from the muscles?
    waste produced by muscles
  8. can one nerve only be supplied to only one muscke?
    no, nerves can supple several muscles
  9. Why is nerve supply important for muscles?
    it is important for the actiivty of skeletal muscle as it is dependent on its nerves
  10. Is blood supply importnat to contract muscles?
    yes
  11. (muscle attachment) waht are Tendons
    extensions of connective tissue sheaths forming a cord-like attachments to a bone
  12. (muscle attachment) where do tendons attach?
    to the periosteum
  13. (muscle attachment) Why are tendons attached to rough tubercle on bone?
    tendons collect and transmits forces from many different muscle fibers on to a small area of bone.
  14. (muscle attachment) What are aponeurosis
    broad sheath of connective tissue to attach muscle
  15. (muscle attachment) how do aponeurosis attach?
    broad sheath attaches and forms a ridge or line on the skeletal structure to which it is attached
  16. (muscle attachment) where else can aponeurosis attach? (2)
    -deep surface of skin

    -dermis of skin
  17. (muscle attachment) what are fleshy attachment? (2)
    -msucle fibers continue almost to the bone

    -very little connective tissue
  18. (muscle attachment) Why is the attachment site for fleshy attachment smooth?
    the forces are widely distributed along the attachment sites ratehr than one particular site
  19. (muscle attachment) what are dermal attahcment?
    msucle fibers attach to the connective tissue of the dermis of the skin
  20. (muscle attachment) what do dermal attachments move?
    skin rather than skeleton
  21. what does the fascicile arrangment determine?
    the shape of muscles
  22. what dictates the strength of a muscle and the direction it pulls?
    the orientation of fascicles
  23. shapes of muscles) description of Parallel (2)
    -has long strap like muscles with parallel fascicles

    • -small cross section
    • *weaker muscles
  24. shapes of muscles) description of Pennate arrangement (2)
    -feather shaped

    -their fascicles insert obliquely on a tendon that runs the length of msucle
  25. shapes of muscles) Does pennate arrangement have great cross section?
    yes
  26. shapes of muscles) desrcitption of Convergent (2)
    -fan shaped

    -have broad origin and narrow insertion
  27. shapes of muscles) why are convergent muscles strong?
    bc all of their fascicles exert their tension on a relatively small insertion site
  28. shapes of muscles) description of circular
    -they are sphincter forming rings around the body openings
  29. shapes of muscles) description of fusiform
    • thcik in the middle and tapered on both ends forming a belly
    • *contractions are moderately strong
  30. relationship between strength, cross section and muscle fibers
    the more muscle fibers, the bigger cross section and the stronger the muscle will be
  31. origin and insertion) Origin characterisitics (2)
    -proximal attachment

    -usually the less moeveable attachment
  32. origin and insertion) HOw big are the tendons that attach to origin?
    they are longer
  33. origin and insertion) charatceritics of insertion (2)
    -distal attachment

    -usually the more freely moveable attachment
  34. origin and insertion) how big are the tendons attached to the insertion?
    shorter
  35. Muscles must do what to cause an action?
    cross a joint
  36. How is the movement determined? (2)
    -depending on the axis of the joint crossed

    -or side of the joint that the muscle crosses
  37. (ex shoulder joint) Movement in the frontal plane
    movement is around an axis going from anterior to posterior
  38. (ex shoulder joint) movement in sagittal plane
    movement is around an axis going from medial to lateral
  39. (ex shoulder joint) movement in the transverse plane
    movement is around an axis is going from superior to inferior
  40. 4 components to lever systems`
    -lever

    -fulcrum

    -froce/effort

    -load
  41. What are lever systems?
    bone-muscle relationships
  42. (components of lever) Lever
    elongated rigid object that rotates around a fixed point
  43. (components of lever) fulcrum
    fixed point aroud which the levers will rotate (axis)
  44. (components of lever)force/effort
    effort applied at one end of the lever to overcome a weight or load
  45. (components of lever) load
    the weight or resistance at some point of the leveer that will be overcome by the force
  46. examples of lever system) levers
    rigid bones
  47. examples of lever system) axis/fulcrum or pivot points
    • joints
    • *most commonly diarthroses
  48. examples of lever system) forces/effort
    msucles
  49. examples of lever system) reistance/load
    gravity or other external applied resistance
  50. types of lever) description of 1st class lever
    fulcrum in the middle of the load and effort

    ex) load would be the face, fulcrum would be the pivot point that can rotate the face up and down, and effort is the muscles that pull back the face
  51. types of lever) description of 2nd class lever
    load in the middle of fulcrum and effort


    ex) wheelbarrow: fulcrum is the wheel, load is on the wagon, and effort is where we pull up and move it
  52. types of lever) description of 3rd class lever
    effort/force in the middle of load and fulcrum

    ex)lifting weights: load is the weight or external resistance, effort is the point of attachment of the muscle being worked out, and the fulcrum is the joint that is near the msucles that is being worked out.
  53. which is the most commn type of lever in the human body?
    3rd class lever
  54. What are 3rd class levers designed to do? (3)
    -increase speed

    - ROM of the distal end of the lever

    • -helps us move through space
    • *fulfills our goal of human motion
  55. (fucntional group of muscles) Prime mover or agonist
    most effective in causing the movement

    • ex) arm flexion= pecs
    •       arm extension= lats
  56. (fucntional group of muscles) Antagonist
    • -opposite of the agonist
    • *reverses the movement of agonist

    ex) lats to pecs or triceps to biceps
  57. (fucntional group of muscles) synergist (2)
    -helps prime mover (agonist) by adding force to the same movement

    • -reduces undesirable movement that may occur
    • *synergists helps agonist to exert all of their force in one direction
  58. (fucntional group of muscles) fixators or stabilizers (2)
    -anchors

    -steadies or supports a bone or body part so that an active muscle has a firm base on whcih to pull one
  59. what else are the fixators/stabilizers involved in?
    posture
  60. What is neuromuscular control?
    control of the somatic motor system by the nervous system
  61. What does the primary motor cortex in frontal lobe do?
    directs all intentional/volitional movements
  62. where does the primary motor cortex send its messages through?
    pyramidal tract
  63. what are alpha motor neurons?
    -motor neurons that send messages through spinal nerves of cranial nerves
  64. where are alpha motor neurons located?
    -spinal cord

    -cranial nerve nuclei
  65. what is a motor unit?
    is an alpha motor neuron and all the msucle fibers it innervates
  66. where do cranial nerves project to?
    muscles of head and neck
  67. where do spinal nerves project to?
    muslces of the body
  68. what is neuromuscular junction?
    point in where the nerve ending meets the muscle fiber
  69. what is motor end plate?
    • folded part of the msucle cell membrane]
    • *neuromuscular junction
  70. what is proprioception?
    • sensory feedback to the brain from the muscles
    • *the sense of knowing where our body is in space
  71. what two structures help us with proprioception?
    -muscle spindles

    -golgi tendons
  72. 2 structures for propriception) muscle spindles (2)
    -stretch receptors within msucles

    • -they tell brain the state of tension of the contraction of a muscle
    • *abundant in msucles with fine control
  73. 2 structures for propriception) Golgi tendon (2)
    -located in tendon of muscles

    -they monitor the pull or contraction on a tendon and send info to the brain
  74. what is afferent information? (2)
    -messages coming in

    -sensory
  75. what is efferent information? (2)
    -messages going out

    -motor

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