Patho unit 3 (lab)

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Patho unit 3 (lab)
2013-09-30 15:37:24
Patho unit lab

Patho unit 3(lab)
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  1. Characteristics of blood:
    • There are 4-6 liters in our bodies.
    • The normal pH is 7.35-7.45.
    • Blood is comprised of formed elements (45%), plasma (55%) and buffy coat.
  2. Plasma vs. Serum:
    • Plasma- the liquid portion of unclotted blood
    • Serum- the liquid portion of clotted blood
  3. Steps of hemostasis:
    • 1. Vascular spasm- damaged blood vessels constrict
    • 2. Platelet plug formation- platelets adhere to damaged endothelium to form platelet plug.
    • 3. Activation of the coagulation cascade- clots form with the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
  4. Leukocytes: (whit blood cells)
    Neutrophils (Granulocyte)
    • Traits: Pink, segmented nucleus, phagocyte
    • Fight: Bacterial infections
    • 60-70% of Leukocytes (in the blood steam)
    • Quickly respond to disease
  5. Leukocytes:
    Eosinophils (Granulocyte)
    • Traits:Red, target antigen-antibody complexes
    • Fight: Allergies and parasites
    • 1-4% of Leukocytes (circulating WBCs)
  6. Leukocytes:
    Basophil (Granulocyte)
    • Traits: Large dark blue granules, inflammatory response, release histamine and heparin
    • Fight: Minimal correlation with disease
    • 0-1%
  7. Leukocytes:
    Monocyte/macrophages (Agranulocyte)
    • Traits: Powerful phagocyte, different names depending on location
    •   -wandering macrophages 
    •   -Fixed macrophages: kupffer cells, histocytes, microglial cells, alveolar macrophages 
    • Fight:Fixed in tissues
    • 3-8% circulating WBC
  8. Leukocytes:
    Lymphocyte (Agranulocyte)
    • Traits: T and B cells, major role in adaptive immune response
    • Fight: Viral infections,and cancers
    • Major role in adaptive immune response
    • 20-30% of WBCs
  9. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
    volume of an average RBC
  10. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
    amount of hemoglobin in an average RBC
  11. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
    concentration of hemoglobin in an average RBC
  12. Reticulocyte
    immature red blood cells containing Hemoglobin, RNA, and mitochondrial remnants
  13. Erythropoiesis
    • production of red blood cells
    • Hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) stimulates the kidneys to release the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) which circulates to the red marrow and speeds up the maturation of immature RBCs
    • The rate of erythropoiesis is reflected in the reticulocyte (retic) count
  14. Hematopoiesis
    formed element production from a pluripotent stem cell
  15. Polycythemia
    an excessive or abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes
  16. Anemia
    a deficiency of red blood cells, or decrease in quality or quantity of hemoglobin
  17. Extramedullary hematopoiesis
    hematopoiesis outside bone marrow (e.g., spleen)
  18. Medullary hematopoiesis
    the formation of blood cells within the bone marrow