Chem133 Chapter7

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  1. What is the speed of light (m/s)?
    • The speed at which electromagnetic radiation travels.
    • 3.00x108m/s
  2. What is the symbol and unit for frequency?
    • Image Upload =hertz (Hz)
    • 1/s
    • s-1

  3. What is the symbol for wavelength?
    LAMBDA Image Upload
  4. Equation for the speed of light (speed of any wave):
    • Image Upload
    • =c for light
  5. What does the amplitude of an electromagnetic wave correspond to?
    Its intensity, or for visible light- its brightness.
  6. Define refraction.
    • When an object (or light) passes from one medium to another (at an angle other than 90°) its velocity changes, causing a change in direction.
    • Light is a special case, because it continues to move at a constant velocity while in a medium.
  7. What is dispersion?
    When the components of white light refract at different angles, separating them into a spectrum.
  8. What is diffraction?
    When a wave strikes the edge of an object, it bends around it.
  9. What are destructive and constructive interference patterns?
    • Destructive wave patterns occur when the crest of one wave collides with the trough of another- causing a net loss of amplitude.
    • Constructive wave patterns are the opposite; crests add to crests, while troughs add to troughs causing a gain of amplitude.
    • Dude.
  10. What is Planck's equation?
    • Image Upload
    • E= energy of radiation
    • n= positive integer (1,2,3...) called a quantum number
    • Image Upload=frequency
    • h= Planck's constant: Image Upload
  11. What is a quantum?
    • a definite amount of energy
    • Image Upload
  12. What is the threshold frequency?
    For light to cause current to flow on a metal, the light must have a minimum frequency.
  13. What's a photon?
    A tiny bundle of energy (a "particle" of light.)
  14. What happens when light from an electrically excited gas is refracted by a prism?
    It creates a line spectrum, or a series of fine lines at specific frequencies separated by black spaces.
  15. What is the Rydberg Equation?
    • Image Upload
    • Where R=1.096776x107m-1
    • n2>n& Both are integers
    • It predicts the wavelength of the line, and for visible light n1 is 2
  16. What is Bohr's equation?
    • Image Upload
    • Z is the charge of the nucleus
    • n is the stationary state with 1= ground state.
  17. Define emission spectrum.
    Atoms in an excited state emit photons characteristic of the element as they return to lower energy states producing bright lines against a dark background.
  18. Define an absorption spectrum.
    atoms absorb photons of certain wavelengths and become excited from lower to higher energy states producing black lines against a bright background.
  19. What is the equation to find the de Broglie wavelength?
    • Image Upload
    • u-speed of object
    • m-mass of object
  20. What is wave-particle duality?
    • The dual character of energy and matter:
    • Energy and matter both possess wave and particle like behavior.
  21. What is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle?
    • The more certain we are of an object's position, the less certain we are of its velocity, and vice versa.
    • Image Upload
  22. What is the difference between an orbit and an orbital?
    An orbit is an actual path, whereas an orbital is a mathematical function that describes the electrons matter-wave, but has no physical meaning.
  23. How do you specify an atomic orbital?
    • With three quantum numbers:
    • principle quantum number (n)- size {0,1,2,3...}
    • angular momentum quantum number (l)- shapeImage Upload
    • magnetic quantum number (ml)- orientation Image Upload
  24. Describe the shapes of the orbitals.
    • s- Spherical
    • p- Dumbell
    • d- 4 "clover shaped orbitals" 1 with 2 lobes and a doughnut shape between them.

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Chem133 Chapter7
2013-10-08 23:54:54
Chem Chemistry 133 Chem133 Chemistry133 foust test2

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