Antibiotics

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JeniLynn77
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Antibiotics
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2014-01-06 12:47:52
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antibiotics pharmacy technician
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Pharmacy Technicians University anti-infectives part 1 study material.
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  1. Antibiotics
    Anti-infectives used to treat or prevent bacterial infections.

    Not effective against viruses or fungi.
  2. How can most skin infections be treated?
    Most skin infections can be treated with topical antibiotics such as Neosporin or Bactroban.
  3. What is a major concern with the use of antibiotics?
    A major concern with antibiotics is the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
  4. MRSA
    methicillin-resistant Staph aureus

    MRSA requires strong antibiotics, like vancomycin, for treatment.
  5. True or False?
    Antibiotics kill both bad and good bacteria.
    True. Antibiotics kill both bad and good bacteria which allows for other bugs to take over or for side effects to occur.

    Possible side effects include diarrhea, yeast infections, allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, and anaphylactic reactions.
  6. 6 Major Classes of Antibiotics
    Be Sure To Make Another Float

    • Beta-lactam antibiotics
    • Sulfonamides
    • Tetracyclines
    • Macrolides
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Fluoroquinolone
  7. Beta-Lactams
    • All drugs in this class have a similar chemical structure...a beta-lactam ring
    • Broad-spectrum antibiotics
    • Resistance is a big problem
  8. 4 Subclasses of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics
    Perky Cats Chase Mice

    • Penicillins
    • Cephalosporins
    • Carbapenems
    • Monobactams
  9. 3 Most Common Penicillins
    • Penicillin V
    • Penicillin G
    • Amoxicillin
  10. True or False?
    Penicillins are not well tolerated.
    False. Penicillins are mostly well tolerated, but can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
  11. Augmentin
    • Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid
    • The moxy (amoxicillin) of her neckline is augmented (Augmentin) by the exposure of her clavicles (clavulanic acid).
    • More cases of diarrhea than with other penicillin antibiotics.
    • Clavulanic acid component is added to the amoxicillin to help it work better, but it causes a lot of diarrhea.
  12. Drug interactions with penicillins
    • Drug interaction are low with penicillins.
    • You may see drug interaction warnings if a person is taking oral contraceptives at the same time as penicillin or amoxicillin.
  13. True or False?
    Penicillin G is an oral form of penicillin.
    False. Penicillin V and amoxicillin are oral agents. Penicillin G is an IV or IM agent.
  14. Most common cephalosporins
    • Keflex (cephalexin)
    • Ceftin (cefuroxime)
    • Omnicef (cefdinir)

    cephalos-pour-in special K flakes and "all" of the "left in" Cheeri-Os
  15. Subclasses of Cephalosporins
    • 1st generation
    • 2nd generation
    • 3rd generation
    • 4th generation
  16. True or False?
    Cephalosporins are well tolerated with few side effects.
    True.
  17. True or False?
    Cephalosporins have many drug interactions.
    False. Drug interactions with cephalosporins are minimal.
  18. True or False?
    Allergic reactions are quite common with cephalosporins.
    True.
  19. True or False?
    Monobactam antibiotics are available as oral and injectable forms and are often used for mild bacterial infections.
    False. Monobactam (Azactam) antibiotics are only available in IV or IM formulations, so they're used most often for moderate-to-severe bacterial infections.
  20. Penicillin VK
    • Generic name: penicillin V.
    • Drug class: Beta-lactam antibiotic: penicillin
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions
  21. Amoxil
    • Generic name: amoxicillin V
    • Drug class: Beta-lactam antibiotic: penicillin
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions
  22. Augmentin, Augmentin XR, Augmentin ES
    • Generic name: amoxicillin with clavulanic acid
    • Drug class:
    •  Amoxicillin: Beta-lactam antibiotic: penicillin
    •  Clavulanic Acid: Slight antibiotic activity, helps amoxicillin work better
    • Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Precautions: Allergic reations
  23. Keflex
    • Generic name: cephalexin
    • Drug Class: Beta-lactam antibiotic: cephalosporin
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Precautons: Allergic reactions
  24. Omnicef
    • Generic name: cefdinir
    • Drug class: Beta-lactam antibiotic: cephalosporin
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Drug Interactions: Must separate iron supplements or antacids containing aluminum or magnesium by 2 hours
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions
  25. Ceftin
    • Generic name: cefuroxime
    • Drug class: Beta-lactam antibiotic: cephalosporin
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions
  26. Macrolides
    • For treating respiratory infections and Chlamydia
    • Used in topical agents for acne or eye infections
  27. Most common macrolides
    • Zithromax (azithromycin)
    • Biaxin (clarithromycin)
  28. True or False?
    Macrolides cause more allergic reactions than beta-lactam antibiotics.
    False. Macrolides can also cause allergic reactions, but not as much as beta-lactam antibiotics.
  29. True or false?
    The downfalls of macrolides are drug interactions and tolerability.
    True.
  30. Erythromycin
    • The first in the macrolide drug class
    • It isn't used much today due to the increase in resistance, and tolerability issues
    • Stimulates the gut and increases motility, so diarrhea is a big issue
  31. True or false?
    A downfall to using erythromycin is that it causes diarrhea in most patients.
    True. Erythromycin stimulates the gut and increases motility, so diarrhea is a big issue.
  32. True or false?
    Biaxin is a macrolide that can cause the levels of some meds to increase to toxic levels.
    True. Biaxin (clarithromycin) also inhibits the metabolism of many meds, and some interactions can be very dangerous.
  33. Zithromax, Z-PAK, Zmax
    • Generic name: azithromycin
    • Drug Class: Macrolide antibiotic
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions
  34. Biaxin
    • Generic name: clarithromycin
    • Drug Class: Macrolide antibiotic
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abnormal taste, abdominal pain
    • Drug Interactions: Many, some severe
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions
  35. E.E.S., Erythrocin, Ery-tab
    • Generic name: erythromycin
    • Drug Class: Macrolide antibiotic
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain
    • Drug Interactons: Many, some severe
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions
  36. Most commonly used sulfonamide?
    • Combo product called Bactrim or Septra
    • Contains the sulfonamide, sulfamethoxazole, and the antibiotic, trimethoprim
    • Often abbreviated SMZ-TMP
  37. What group within the structure of sulfonomides is responsible for causing hypersensitivity reactions?
    "Sulfa" group
  38. Give two examples of agents which may raise drug allergy alerts with sulfonomides.
    Celebrex and hydrochlorothiazide
  39. What causes a hypersensitivity reaction in a patient taking Bactrim?
    Bactrim's sulfa group
  40. Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim
    • Brand name: BactrimSeptra, etc.
    • Abbreviation: SMX/TMP
    • Drug Class Action:
    •   Sulfamethoxazole: sulfonamide antibiotic
    •   Trimethoprim: antibiotic
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions
  41. Which antibiotic is considered duplicate therapy?
    SMZ-TMP (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim)
  42. Tetracyclines
    Broad-spectrum antibiotics used for acne, sexually transmitted diseases, and some respiratory infections
  43. List the most common meds in the tetracycline class.
    • Tetracyline (TCN)
    • Minocycline
    • Doxycycline

    Try My Doughnuts
  44. True or False?
    Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic.
    True.
  45. True or False?
    Tetracyclines can cause increased sensitivity to the sun.
    True.
  46. True or False?
    Tetracyclines are commonly used in small children.
    False.
  47. True or False?
    Tetracyclines should be taken at the same time as antacids.
    False.
  48. True or False?
    Tetracyclines have many drug interactions.
    False.
  49. Tetracycline
    • Brand Name: Sumycin, Panmycin, etc.
    • Generic Name: tetracycline (sometimes abbreviated TCN)
    • Drug Class Action: A tetracycline antibiotic
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, photosensitivity, yellow/brown discoloration of teeth, retard bone growth in children
    • Drug Interactions: Must separate dairy, iron supplements, or antacids containing aluminum or magnesium by 2 to 4 hours
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions, don't use in children
  50. Minocyclines
    • Brand Name: Dynacin, Solodyn (for severe cystic acne), etc.
    • Drug Class Action: A tetracycline antibiotic
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, photosensitivity, yellow/brown discoloration of teeth, retard bone growth in children
    • Drug Interactions: Must separate dairy, iron supplements, or antacids containing aluminum or magnesium by 2 to 4 hours
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions, don't use in children
  51. Doxycycline
    • Brand Name: Doryx, Vibramycin, etc.
    • Drug Class Action: A tetracycline antibiotic
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, photosensitivity, yellow/brown discoloration of teeth, retard bone growth in children
    • Drug Interactions: Must separate dairy, iron supplements, or antacids containing aluminum or magnesium by 2 to 4 hours
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions, don't use in children
  52. Aminoglycosides
    • Treat severe infections
    • Most are available only as IV or IM formulations
    • A few are in topical agents
  53. What aminoglycoside is contained in Neosporin?
    Neomycin
  54. Name two of the most severe adverse effects caused by aminoglycosides.
    Hearing damage and kidney damage
  55. Which two lab values allow pharmacists to check the kidney function of patients taking aminoglycosides?
    • BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
    • Serum creatinine (SrCr)
  56. True or False?
    A patient is on the IV aminoglycoside, gentamicin. The pharmacist is most concerned about diarrhea.
    False.
  57. True or False? A patient is on the IV aminoglycoside, gentamicin. The pharmacist is most concerned about SrCr.
    True. (The pharmacist would be most concerned about SrCr as well as BUN.)
  58. What is the medical term for hearing damage?
    Ototoxicity
  59. Tobramycin
    • Brand Name: NebcinTobrex (eye), TOBI (nebulizer solution), etc.
    • Drug Class Action: An aminoglycoside antibiotic
    • Side Effects: Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity
    • Ophthalmic preparations: eye irritation, itching, redness
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions
  60. Tobramycin Plus Dexamethasone
    • Brand Name: TobraDex (eye)
    • Drug Class Action:
    • Tobramycin: an aminoglycoside antibiotic
    • Dexamethasone: a corticosteroid that inhibits an inflammatory response (redness, swelling, etc.)
    • Side Effects: Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity
    • Ophthalmic preparations: eye irritation, itching, redness
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions
  61. Neomycin Sulfate/Polymyxin B/Bacitracin Zinc
    • Brand Name: Neosporin, etc. (also known as triple antibiotic therapy)
    • Drug Class Action:
    • Neomycin sulfate: an aminoglycoside antibiotic
    • Polymyxin B: antibiotic
    • Bacitracin zinc: antibiotic
    • Precautions:
    • Neomycin: allergic reactions
  62. True or False?
    Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic.
    True.
  63. True or False?
    Clarithromycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic.
    False
  64. True or False?
    Azithromycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic.
    False.
  65. True or False?
    Erythromycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic.
    False.
  66. Fluoroquinolones
    • Used to treat respiratory, urinary tract, and intestinal infections
    • Also called quinolones
    • Divided into four generations based on teh type of bugs they're effective against
  67. What is the biggest adverse reaction possible for fluoroquinolones?
    • Tendon rupture or tendonitis
    • Also can affect cartilage development in the body, so this class should be avoided in children and in pregnant women
  68. Name the products which need to be given separately from quinolones.
    Products containing iron, aluminum, calcium, or magnesium
  69. True or False?
    Penicillins should be given separately from antacids or multivitamins.
    False.
  70. True or False?
    Tetracyclines should be given separately from antacids or multivitamins.
    True.
  71. True or False?
    Fluoroquinolones should be given separately from antacids or multivitamins.
    True.
  72. What side effect would a pharmacist be most concerned about in a patient taking Levaquin (levofloxacin)?
    Tendon rupture (or tendonitis)
  73. Levofloxacin
    • Brand Name: Levaquin, etc.
    • Drug Class Action: A fluoroquinolone antibiotic
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, increased risk of tendonitis and tendon rupture, photosensitivity
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions; don't use in children
    • Drug Interactions: Must separate iron supplements or antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium by 2 hours
  74. Moxifloxacin
    • Brand Name: Avelox, Vigamox (eye), etc.
    • Drug Class Action: A fluoroquinolone antibiotic
    • Side Effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased risk of tendonitis and tendon rupture, photosensitivity
    • Precautions: Allergic reactions; don't use in children
    • Drug Interactions: Must separate iron supplements or antacids containing aluminum or magnesium by 4 to 8 hours

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