Osvaldo science exam 4

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LucyAnkleAnchor
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237958
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Osvaldo science exam 4
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2013-10-24 18:17:49
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science number 4
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  1. What is matter?

    examples?
    It is what occupies physical space and has mass.

    stars, door, dog, air, water etc
  2. Can matter be created or destroyed?
    No, it can only be transformed.
  3. 4 Characteristics of matter?
    COLOR: a visual sensation produced by reflected light

    MASS: the matter that an object has, measured in kilograms

    WEIGHT: the gravitational force that attracts a body, measured in NEWTONS

    VOLUME: the space that a body occupies, its size. measured in cubic meters (m3)
  4. what is the difference between mass and weight?
    Mass is the matter that an object has

    and

    weight is the gravitational force that attracts a body
  5. What are ATOMS?

    Name the three parts of an atom
    The basic particles that form matter.

    PROTONS,

    NEUTRONS

    • and
    • ELECTRONS
  6. What is a proton?

    What is their charge?
    they are in the nucleus of the atom.

    Their charge is POSITIVE
  7. What is an electron?

    What is their charge?
    They orbit around the nucleus.

    They have a negative charge.
  8. What is a neutron?

    What is their charge?
    Neutrons are in the nucleus.

    They don't have a charge.
  9. What are the two kinds of matter?
    1. PURE SUBSTANCES

    2. MIXTURES
  10. Definition of PURE SUBSTANCES

    Examples?
    • They are materials with defined composition.
    • Their characteristics do not vary.
    • they can't be separated
    • They have constant properties. and chemical composition.

    Examples: water, diamonds.
  11. What are the two types of pure substances?

    Examples?
    • 1. Elements. made of only 1 kind of atom and cannot be decomposed into simpler subtances.
    • examples: gold, copper.

    • 2. Compounds: they are pure substances made by a combination of 2 or more elements. Their characteristics are different from their components.
    • they can be disintegrated into elements through chemical procedures.
    • Example: water.
  12. What are mixtures?
    • the union of two or more substances in variable amounts,  but they are not chemically combined.
    • Each component of the mixture keeps its characteristics.
    • They can be homogeneous or heterogeneous.
  13. What is a homogeneous mixture?
    • they are UNIFORM and CONTINUOUS.
    • for example Water and Sugar.

    made of SOLVENT: in which the SOLUTE is dissolved.
  14. what are HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES?
    • They are un-uniform and discontinuous.
    • their composition is variable.

    example rice and beans.
  15. what are the 4 states of matter?
    solid, liquid, gas and plasma.
  16. what are the characteristics of a solid?

    examples?
    -they have a fixed shape and volume.

    examples: table. chair.
  17. what are the characteristics of a LIQUID?
    • the volume is defined, but the shape is not.
    • the shape is of the container.
    • they have a free surface.
  18. what are the characteristics of a GAS?
    • shape is not defined.
    • volume is not defined.

    example of gas: cooking gas.
  19. what are the characteristics of a PLASMA?
    It is made of ionized matter.

    examples: the earth's ionosphere, the sun's corona
  20. what are the physical properties of matter?

    examples
    the ones that do not change the chemical nature of matter.

    examples: color, smell, freezing point, boiling point, attraction to magnets.
  21. What are the chemical properties of matter?

    examples
    they change the chemical nature of matter.

    heat of combustion, reactivity with water, PH, electromotive force.
  22. what are Physical changes?
    they are changes of form but not the identity of matter.

    for example, melting ice into water
  23. physical changes: what is MELTING?
    ice is changed to water

    from a solid to a liquid
  24. physical changes: what is BOILING?
    change from liquid to gas.

    boiling water.
  25. physical changes: what is CONDENSING?
    a gas changes to a liquid.
  26. physical changes: what is FREEZING or SOLIDIFICATION?
    Change from liquid to solid.

    from water to ice.
  27. physical changes: what is SUBLIMATION?
    The change from solid to gas

    example: dry ice
  28. physical changes: what is DEPOSITION?
    The change from gas to solid.

    water vapor to ice.
  29. physical changes: what is IONIZATION?
    the change from gas to plasma.
  30. physical changes: what is DEIONIZATION?
    the change from plasma to gas.

    motor
  31. What are physical changes?
    they are changes that alter the size, shape, location or physical state of a substance BUT not its chemical state.

    • for example from liquid to solid.
    •                   boiling water.
    •                   cutting paper.
  32. what are chemical changes?
    Changes that alter the chemical makeup of the substance.

    - if there are different chemicals, it's a chemical change.

    for example: you burn paper! it is ASH, not paper anymore.

    EATING food.
  33. signs that a chemical change has occured?
    • there is gas (bubbles)
    • creation or loss of heat
    • fire
    • rotting
    • decomposition
    • precipitation - lumps of sour milk
  34. TRUE OR FALSE:
    with a physical change no new chemical occurs?
    TRUE!
  35. TRUE OR FALSE
    With a chemical change, a chemical reaction occurs.
    TRUE!
  36. TRUE OR FALSE:
    With a physical change energy is either given off or absorbed.
    false.
  37. TRUE OR FALSE:
    A chemical change can be easily reversed.
    FALSE
  38. TRUE OR FALSE:
    Eating food can be considered both physical and chemical changes.
    TRUE.

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