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Adipose cells are called? Derived from? and store what?
Adipocytes store lipids from 3 sources
- Dietary fats - chylomicrons
- triglycerides produced in the liver - VLDLs
- fatty acids synthesized locally
lipids are mobilized from adipocytes by? which are activated by?
- hormones glucagon, growth hormone and norepinephrine
Cells of adipose tissue are supported by what connective tissue?
What divides adipose tissue into lobules of various sizes?
What are the 2 types of adipose tissue?
White and brown
Adipocytes of white fat are typically what size of cells?
What is meant by unilocular? What cell is this term describing?
- Means 1 droplet
- Used to describe white fat cells
Brown fat cells are described as? and are what size as compared to white fat cells? they contain lots of?
Brown fat multiocular cells are metabolized for what purpose? how?
Thermogenesis not ATP production, this is done by using the uncoupling protein 1
2 functions of cartilage
- Support soft tissue structures
- provide cushioned low friction surfaces in joints
What is the majority of the cartilage ECM or cells?
What is the name of the spot where chondrocytes are embedded in cartilage?
Cartilage ECM contains a lot of collagen but also notably what that binds lots of water?
proteoglycans most notably aggrecan
What surrounds cartilage and give it its vascularization
3 major forms of cartilage?
The ECM of hyaline cartilage is described as?
Homegenous and glassy
Cartilage uses what type of collagen
The territorial matrix of the lacuna stains lighter because?
Less collagen and more proteoglycan
How do chondrocytes occur in the matrix?
Singly or in isogenous groups
Perichondrium is usually present on the hyaline cartilage but in 2 situations?
- Articular surfaces
- growing epiphysis of long bones
How does elastic cartilage differ from hyaline?
Not much it is almost the axact same in cell structure location etc but it also includes abundant elastic fibers increasing the tissues flexibility
When is elastic cartilage surrounded by perichondrium? Where do you find elastic cartilage
Fibrocartilage is a mix of
Hyaline cartilage and dense connective tissue
Ontop of the regular cartilage things, in fibro cartilage we would expect to find
TYype 1 collagen and many fibroblasts
What function does fibrocartilage play?
A very tough strong supporting role in places like insertions fo tendons and between vertebra
All cartilage orirginally comes from what embryonic tissue?
What are the 2 types of growth of cartilage? Describe them?
- Interstitial - Grow by mitosis from existing chondroblasts from lacunae
- Appositional - Formation of new chondroblasts, peripherally from progenitor cells
Describe the repair and replacement in cartilage
Very slow and poor due to being avascular and having a very low metabolic rate