M.T. Chapter 7 - Respiratory System

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ams217
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237974
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M.T. Chapter 7 - Respiratory System
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2013-10-01 20:44:02
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respiratory system
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respiratory system related to radiation therapy
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  1. hairlike structure; moves particles from the trachea upward to the pharynx to be removed by coughing, sneezing or swalowing
    cilia
  2. tough, elastic connective tissue that is more rigid than ligaments but less dense than bone
    cartilage
  3. state in which the regulatory mechanisms of the body maintain an internal environment within tolerable levels, despite changes in the external environment
    homeostasis
  4. moist tissue layer lining hollow organs and cavities of the body that open to the environment
    mucous membrane; mucosa
  5. thin layer that covers internal body cavities and secretes a fluid that keeps the membrane moist
    serous membrane; serosa
  6. section of the pharynx posterior to the nose
    nasopharynx
  7. section of the pharynx posterior to the mouth
    oropharynx
  8. section of the pharynx superior to the larynx
    laryngopharynx
  9. 3 sections of the pharynx
    • -nasopharynx
    • -oropharynx
    • -laryngopharynx
  10. a lymphnoid tissue within the nasopharynx
    adenoids (pharyngeal tonsils)
  11. located in the oropharynx and protect the opening to the respiratory tract from microscopic organisms that may attempt entry by this route
    palatine tonsils (tonsils)
  12. space inbetween the lungs; contains the heart, aorta, esophagus and bronchi
    mediastinum
  13. The mediastinum contains what organs/structures?
    • heart
    • aorta
    • esophagus
    • bronchi
  14. the membrane lying closest to the lung
    visceral pleura
  15. the membrane that lines the thoracic cavity
    parietal pleura
  16. drawing air into the lungs
    inspiration
  17. air leaving the lungs
    expiration
  18. nas/o
    nose
  19. rhin/o
    nose
  20. tonsill/o
    tonsils
  21. pharyng/o
    pharynx (throat)
  22. laryng/o
    larynx
  23. trache/o
    trachea
  24. pleur/o
    pleura
  25. surgical puncture of the pleural cavity
    pleurocentesis; thoracentesis; thoracocentesis
  26. pneum/o; pneumon/o; pulmon/o
    air; lung
  27. excision of (all or part of) a lung
    pneumectomy
  28. incomplete expansion of the lung; also called airless lung or collapsed lung
    atelectasis
  29. abnormal condition of blueness
    cyanosis
  30. lob/o
    lobe
  31. excision of a lobe
    lobectomy
  32. orth/o
    straight
  33. -pnea
    breathing
  34. ox/o
    oxygen
  35. deficiency of oxygen in blood
    hypoxemia
  36. pector/o
    chest
  37. phren/o
    diaphragm; mind
  38. cost/o
    ribs
  39. where the ribs meet the diaphragm
    costophrenic angle
  40. spir/o
    breathe
  41. -capnia
    carbon dioxide
  42. -phonia
    voice
  43. -ptysis
    spitting
  44. -thorax
    chest
  45. air between the layers of tissue in the lung (chest) which causes the lung to collapse
    pneumothorax
  46. brady-
    slow
  47. dys-
    bad; painful; difficult
  48. eu-
    good; normal
  49. tachy-
    rapid
  50. any abnormal fluid in the pleural cavity, the space between the visceral and parietal pleura
    pleural effusion
  51. listening to sounds made by organs of the body using a stethoscope
    auscultation
  52. gentle tapping on the chest with the fingers and listening to the resultant sounds to determine the position, size or consistency of the underlying structures
    percussion
  53. condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen
    asphyxia
  54. oxygen deficiency in blood; usually a sign of respiratory inpairment
    hypoxia
  55. accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli, most commonly caused by heart failure
    pulmonary edema
  56. rapid onset, short but severe
    acute
  57. long lasting and recurrent
    chronic
  58. bifurcation of the trachea, located at T4/5
    carina
  59. intradermal to identify tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen
    Mantoux test
  60. variety of tests used to evaluate respiratory function, the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air as well as perform gas exchange across the alveolocapillary membrane
    pulmonary function tests (PFTs)
  61. visual examination of the bonchi using an endoscope inserted through the mouth and trachea for direct viewing of structure or for projection on a minitor
    bronchoscopy
  62. visual examination of the larynx to detect tumors, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury, or other abnormalities
    laryngoscopy
  63. visual examination of the mediastinal structures, including the heart, trachea, esophagus, bronchus, thymus and lymph nodes
    mediastinoscopy
  64. bronchial washings
    lavage
  65. excision of a lung, commonly for treatment of cancer
    pneumectomy
  66. excision of a lobe of a lung, commonly for treatment of cancer
    lobectomy
  67. surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the neck and into the trachea into which a breathing breathing tube may be inserted
    tracheostomy; tracheotomy
  68. constrict blood vessels of nasal passages and limit blood flow, which causes swollen tissues to shrink so that air can pass more freely through the passageways
    decongestants
  69. liquefy respiratory secretions so that they are more easily dislodged during coughing episodes
    expectorants
  70. relieve suppress coughing by blocking the cough reflex in the medulla of the brain
    antitussives
  71. stimulate bronchial muscles to relax, thereby expanding air passages, resulting in increased air flow
    bronchodilators
  72. COPD
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  73. three major disorders of COPD
    • asthma
    • chronic bronchitis
    • emphysema
  74. spasms in the bronchial passages that may be sudden and violent and lead to dyspnea
    asthma
  75. inflammation of the bronchi caused mainly by smoking and air pollution
    chronic bronchitis
  76. characterized by decreased elasticity of the alveoli; alveoli are unable to contract to their original size
    emphysema
  77. extremely thick
    viscous
  78. collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affects all or part of a lung
    atelectasis
  79. the vertical partition of cartilage dividing the nose into a right and left side
    nasal septum
  80. a wedge shaped depression on the mediastinal surface of each lung, where the bronchus, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics enter or leave the viscus
    hilum of the lung
  81. a communicable disease caused by the bacterium Myobacterium tuberculosis; spreads by droplets of respiratory secretions from an infected individual when coughing, laughing or sneezing
    tuberculosis (TB)
  82. serum pleural effusion
    hydrothorax
  83. pus pleural effusion
    empyema or pyothorax
  84. blood pleural effusion
    hemothorax
  85. organs/structures of the upper respiratory tract
    • nasal cavity
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
    • adenoids
    • palatine tonsils
    • larynx
    • epiglottis
    • trachea
  86. organs/structures of the lower respiratory tract
    • bronchi
    • right lung
    • left lung
    • bronchioles
    • alveoli
    • pulmonary capillaries
    • mediastinum
    • visceral pleura
    • parietal pleura
    • pleural cavity
    • diaphragm
  87. 2 films at a 90 degree angle; example: AP & left lateral
    orthogonals
  88. RAO
    right anterior oblique
  89. LAO
    left anterior oblique
  90. RPO
    right posterior oblique
  91. LPO
    left posterior oblique
  92. relieving symptoms
    palliative
  93. considered a radiation therapy medical emergency and the patient must be treated asap to shrink the tumor to keep from compressing on the superior vena cava. The tumor which most likely is located in the right lung starts compressing on the superior vena cava.
    Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
  94. carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the heart
    superior vena cava
  95. a rare form of cancer that develops from cells of the mesothelium, the protective lining that covers many of the internal organs of the body; most commonly caused by exposure to asbestos
    mesothelioma

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