Has immediate application with a practical solution
Focus on effectiveness
To help someone or get them well
Can we block tobacco addiction with a drug that has been shown to block nicotine receptors in the brain?
No Medical Training
Intense academic training
Has medical degree and specializes in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
4 Goals of Psychology
Description: describe the behavior “ what is going on?”
Explanation or understanding: why is it happening?
Theory: general explanation of a set of observations or facts
Prediction: will it happen again?
Control: over other variables that may affect the behavior/ prevent biases
Faith vs. Empiricism
Faith comes first which can then be backed by experience
Empiricism starts with experience (fact)
What we discover today, can change tomorrow because it's based on experiment and hypothesis
A system for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data.
Perceiving the Question
Variable that is manipulated in any experiment
Thing being measured.
The group of people used for a study
When the person doesn't answer truthfully
Process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control group randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group.
When neither the researcher or the participator knows who is the control group or
who has the placebo
Subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment.
Group that receives the treatment.
Participants of the experiment are "blind" to the treatment they receive.
Wundt – objective introspection: process of objectively examining and measuring one's thoughts and mental activities (how people adapt to their surroundings)
James - How the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play
Watson – you become what you learn and train for
Focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share.
Difference between men and women (men want to have more kids, women want to settle down with someone
who will stay)
Focuses on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures
Looking at the big picture (whole)
We can reach our own potential (free will) we make ourselves who we are
Maslow and Rogers
Memory,thought process, how the brain works
Freud - Subconscious, focus on sexual
Same as psychoanalysis with less focus on sexual
Study of groups, social roles, and rules of social actions and relationships
Study of cultural norms, values, and expectations
Effect of biological causes on behavior.
Hormones, heredity, brain chemicals, tumors, and diseases.
A measure of the relationship between two variables
Correlation vs. Causation
Correlation is not necessarily Causation
Study of one individual in great detail.
Different Methods of Research
Discoveries from Animal Research
Animal Research: Why or Why not?
Does discovery outweigh the consequences?
Branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons.
Cell body of the neuron
Tubelike structure that carries the neural message to other cells.
Coating of axon that insulates, protects and speeds up the neural impulse.
Made of fatty substances by glial cells
Make up 90% of brain
Holds neurons in place
Changes the chemical response
received at the cell body into a voltage that is sent down the axon (like
Inside a synaptic vesicle and then released unto the synaptic cleft (synapse)
Types of Neurotransmitters
Excitatory ex. Adrenaline, seratonin
Inhibitory- ex GABA (drowsy relaxed etc)
Chemical substance that blocks or reduces the effects of a neurotransmitter
Chemical substance that mimics or enhances the effects of a neurotransmitter
The Release of the nerual impulse consisting of a reversal of the eletrical charge within the axon.
Threshold exceeded- axon hillock
Flow of ions through channels in membrane (NA+ rushes in and CL- rushes out)
All or none law - it either happens or it doesn’t. kinda like eating a cookie (you either eat five cookies or you don't eat any cookies) Must pass threshold (-55) to fire
This leads to refractory period (around -90) later returns -70
Nothing is happening (resting)
A neuron is in resting potential when there are more positively (NA+ sodium) charged ions outside than inside (CL- chloride on inside)
How does a neuron fire?
Resting potential. Nothing is happening (resting). A neuron is in resting potential when there are more positively (NA+ sodium) charged ions outside than inside (CL- chloride on inside)
Action potential (firing). Threshold exceeded- axon hillock. Flow of ions through channels in membrane (NA+ rushes in and CL- rushes out). All or none law· it either happens or it doesn’t. kinda like eating a cookie (you either eat five cookies or you don't eat any cookies)· Must pass threshold (-55) to fire. This leads to refractory period (around -90) later returns -70
Returning to resting potential. Sodium Pump pushes all NA+ out of the neuron and K+ stays in. Refractory period that overshoots the normal resting potential occurs first (-90)
Located at back of skull
Center of decision making
Bring memories in to make decisions
Daydreaming/ execution of plans (Einstein had a large parietal cortex)
Spatial location (drawing a to scale map for example)
Located behind temples
Sense of hearing and meaningful speech
Central Nervous System
Everything inside the spinal column and the skull
Peripheral Nervous System
All the nerves outside the spinal column and the skull
Contains Autonomic and Somatic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body.
Autonomic Nervous System
Controls all involuntary muscles, organs, and glands.
Two Parts: Sympathetic Division and Parasympathetic Division
Sympathetic Nervous System
Responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arrousal
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Restores the body to normal function after arousal
Responsible for day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands
Location: bottom of the brain at top of spinal column
controls life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing
Here is where nerves cross over to opposite sides of the brain
Contains Reticular Formation
Responsible for waking up the brain
Allows for ignoring constant unchanging information
Keeps you alert
Controls all involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement
Connected to coordination and balance
Crossroads for all information in the brain
Forming long-term memories (not stored here!)
Sad case of HM
Surgically had part of brain removed for treating epilepsy