Psych Exam 1

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Psych Exam 1
2013-10-03 21:47:28

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  1. Basic Study/Research
    • Performed to understand the
    • fundamental principles of a phenomenon
    • Born out of curiosity, just
    • to understand
    • No other reason for the study
    • besides just wanting to know
    • Is Nicotine addictive?
    • Sex life of mosquitos example

    • "Dumb" research
    • that later turned into a cure for malaria
  2. Applied Study/Research
    Has immediate application with a practical solution
  3. Clinical Study/Research
    • Focus on effectiveness
    • (treatments, medications)
    • To help someone or get them well
    • Can we block tobacco addiction with a drug that has been shown to block nicotine receptors in the brain?
  4. Psychologist
    • No Medical Training
    • Intense academic training
  5. Psychiatrist
    Has medical degree and specializes in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
  6. Psychology
    Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  7. 4 Goals of Psychology
    • Description: describe the behavior “ what is going on?”
    • Explanation or understanding: why is it happening?
    • Theory: general explanation of a set of observations or facts
    • Prediction: will it happen again?
    • Control: over other variables that may affect the behavior/ prevent biases
  8. Faith vs. Empiricism
    • Faith comes first which can then be backed by experience
    • Empiricism starts with experience (fact)
    • What we discover today, can change tomorrow because it's based on experiment and hypothesis
  9. Scientific Method
    • A system for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data.
    • Perceiving the Question
    • Form Hypothesis
    • Test Hypothesis
    • Draw Conclusions
    • Report Results
  10. Independent Variable
    Variable that is manipulated in any experiment
  11. Dependent Variable
    Thing being measured.
  12. Sample Bias
    The group of people used for a study
  13. Response Bias
    When the person doesn't answer truthfully
  14. Randomization
    Process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control group randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group.
  15. Double-blind Study
    • When neither the researcher or the participator knows who is the control group or
    • who has the placebo
  16. Control Group
    Subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment.
  17. Experimental Group
    Group that receives the treatment.
  18. Single-blind Study
    Participants of the experiment are "blind" to the treatment they receive.
  19. Structuralism
    Wundt – objective introspection: process of objectively examining and measuring one's thoughts and mental activities (how people adapt to their surroundings)
  20. Functionalism
    James - How the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play
  21. Behavioralism
    Watson – you become what you learn and train for
  22. Evolutionary Perspective
    • Focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share.  
    • Survival     
    • Children
    • Difference between men and women (men want to have more kids, women want to settle down with someone
    • who will stay)
  23. Gestalt Psychology
    • Focuses on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures   
    • Looking at the big picture (whole)
  24. Humanistic Perspective
    • We can reach our own potential (free will) we make ourselves who we are
    • Maslow and Rogers
  25. Cognitive Perspective
    Memory,thought process, how the brain works
  26. Psychoanalysis
    Freud - Subconscious, focus on sexual
  27. Psychodynamic
    Same as psychoanalysis with less focus on sexual
  28. Socialcultural Persepective
    • Study of groups, social roles, and rules of social actions and relationships
    • Study of cultural norms, values, and expectations
  29. Biopsychological Perspective
    • Effect of biological causes on behavior.
    • Hormones, heredity, brain chemicals, tumors, and diseases.
  30. Correlation
    A measure of the relationship between two variables
  31. Correlation vs. Causation
    Correlation is not necessarily Causation
  32. Case Study
    Study of one individual in great detail.
  33. Different Methods of Research
    • Naturalistic Observation
    • Laboratory Observation
    • Case Study
    • Survey
  34. Discoveries from Animal Research
    • Medicine
    • Chemo Therapy
  35. Animal Research: Why or Why not?
    Does discovery outweigh the consequences?
  36. Dendrite
    Branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons.
  37. Soma
    Cell body of the neuron
  38. Axon
    Tubelike structure that carries the neural message to other cells.
  39. Myelin
    • Coating of axon that insulates, protects and speeds up the neural impulse.
    • Made of fatty substances by glial cells
  40. Glial cells
    • Make up 90% of brain
    • Holds neurons in place
  41. Axon Hillock
    • Changes the chemical response
    • received at the cell body into a voltage that is sent down the axon (like
    • translator)
  42. Neurotransmitter
    Inside a synaptic vesicle and then released unto the synaptic cleft (synapse)
  43. Types of Neurotransmitters
    • Excitatory ex. Adrenaline, seratonin
    • Inhibitory- ex GABA (drowsy relaxed etc)
  44. Antagonist
    Chemical substance that blocks or reduces the effects of a neurotransmitter
  45. Agonist
    Chemical substance that mimics or enhances the effects of a neurotransmitter
  46. Action Potential
    • The Release of the nerual impulse consisting of a reversal of the eletrical charge within the axon.
    • Threshold exceeded- axon hillock
    • Flow of ions through channels in membrane (NA+ rushes in and CL- rushes out)
    • All or none law - it either happens or it doesn’t.  kinda like eating a cookie (you either eat five cookies or you don't eat any cookies)  Must pass threshold (-55) to fire
    • This leads to refractory period (around -90) later returns -70
  47. Resting Potential
    • Nothing is happening (resting)
    • A neuron is in resting potential when there are more positively (NA+ sodium) charged ions outside than inside (CL- chloride on inside)
  48. How does a neuron fire?
    • Resting potential.  Nothing is happening (resting).  A neuron is in resting potential when there are more positively (NA+ sodium) charged ions outside than inside (CL- chloride on inside)
    • Action potential (firing).  Threshold exceeded- axon hillock.  Flow of ions through channels in membrane (NA+ rushes in and CL- rushes out).  All or none law·  it either happens or it doesn’t.  kinda like eating a cookie (you either eat five cookies or you don't eat any cookies)· Must pass threshold (-55) to fire.  This leads to refractory period (around -90) later returns -70
    • Returning to resting potential.  Sodium Pump pushes all NA+ out of the neuron and K+ stays in.  Refractory period that overshoots the normal resting potential occurs first (-90)
  49. Occipital Lobe
    • Vision center
    • Located at back of skull
  50. Frontal Lobe
    • Center of decision making
    • Planning
    • Bring memories in to make decisions
    • Reasoning
  51. Parietal Lobe
    • Function
    • Attention
    • Daydreaming/ execution of plans (Einstein had a large parietal cortex)
    • Spatial location (drawing a to scale map for example)
  52. Temporal Lobe
    • Located behind temples
    • Sense of hearing and meaningful speech
  53. Central Nervous System
    Everything inside the spinal column and the skull
  54. Peripheral Nervous System
    • All the nerves outside the spinal column and the skull
    • Contains Autonomic and Somatic Nervous System
  55. Somatic Nervous System
    Nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body.
  56. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Controls all involuntary muscles, organs, and glands.
    • Two Parts: Sympathetic Division and Parasympathetic Division
  57. Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Fight-or-flight system
    • Responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arrousal
  58. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • Restores the body to normal function after arousal
    • Responsible for day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands
  59. Medulla/Pons
    • Location: bottom of the brain at top of spinal column
    • controls life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing
    • Here is where nerves cross over to opposite sides of the brain
    • Contains Reticular Formation
  60. Reticular Formation
    • Responsible for waking up the brain
    • Allows for ignoring constant unchanging information
    • Keeps you alert
  61. Cerebellum
    • Controls all involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement
    • Connected to coordination and balance
  62. Thalamus
    Crossroads for all information in the brain
  63. Hypothalamus
    • Homeostasis
    • Hormone release
  64. Hippocampus
    • Forming long-term memories (not stored here!)
    • Sad case of HM
    • Surgically had part of brain removed for treating epilepsy
    • Couldn't make new memories
  65. Amygdala
    • Inner feelings--emotions - rage; placid, calm response
    • Fear, anxiety, aggression and violence
  66. Cerebral Cortex
    Responsible for higher thought process and interpretation of sensory input
  67. Sulci
    Folds in cortex
  68. Basal Ganglia
    • Overlearned behaviors; but more than habit formations
    • Automatic behaviors - ex:walking, chewing gum, etc.
    • Parkinson's Disease
  69. Pleasure Center
    • Dopamine passes into pleasure center
    • Natural reinforcers (eating, kissing, etc) can become addicting when:
    • They are highly stimulating version of what our ancestors found irresistible
    • Is available in limitless supply
    • Comes in varieties (novelty effect)
    • We binge and the effect on the pleasure center is rapid and "sledgehammer-like," hitting the brain in large amounts at once
  70. Reuptake
    Process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles
  71. Reflex Arc
    The connection of the afferent neurons to the interneurons to the efferent neurons, resulting in a reflex action
  72. Acetylcholine
    Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in memory and control muscle contractions
  73. Serotonin
    Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in mood, sleep, and appetite
  74. GABA (gamma-aminabutyric acid)
    Major inhibitory neurotransmitter; involved in sleep and inhibits movement
  75. Glutamate
    Major Excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in learning, memory formation, and nervous system development
  76. Norepinephrine
    Mainly excitatory; involved in arousal and mood
  77. Dopamine
    Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in control of movement and sensations of pleasure
  78. Endorphins
    Inhibitory neural regulators; involved in pain relief
  79. Computed Tomography (CT)
    Series of X-ray slices combined together using a computer
  80. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    Brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain
  81. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    A recording of the electrical activity of large groups of cortical neurons just below the skull, most often using scalp electrodes
  82. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    Brain-imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into a person and a computer compiles a color-coded image of the activity of the brain
  83. Sensation
    • Activation of receptors in various sense organs
    • When chemical receptor is stimulated
  84. Perception
    When brain processes sensation
  85. Illusions
    • Our past experiences influence what we see and think
    • Relationship between sensation and perception is disorientated by the sense (in this case the eye)
  86. Homunculus
    Parts of the body that have more sensory neurons
  87. Cornea
    • Protects the eye
    • Bends light waves so the image can be focused
  88. Iris
    Muscles that control the size of the pupil
  89. Pupil
    Iris opening that changes size depending on the amount of light in the environment
  90. Lens
    Changes shape to bring objects into focus
  91. Retina
    Located at back of the eye and contains photoreceptor cells
  92. Fovea
    • Central area of retina
    • Has greatest density of photoreceptors
  93. Optic Nerve
    Sends visual information to the brain
  94. Blind Spot
    • Where the optic nerve leaves the eye.
    • Contains no photoreceptor cells (rods or cones)
  95. Vitreous Humor
    Jelly-like liquid that nourishes and gives shape to the eye.
  96. Rods
    • Visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina
    • Responsible for non-color sensitivity to low levels of light
    • Responsible for peripheral vision
    • No rods in center of retina
  97. Cones
    • Visual sensory receptors found at the back of the retina
    • Responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision
    • Very center of retina made entirely of cones
  98. Dark Adaptation
    The recovery of the eye's sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights.
  99. Light Adaptation
    The recovery of the eye's sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness
  100. Afterimages
    Images that occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed
  101. Trichromatic Theory
    Theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones: red, blue, and green
  102. Opponent-process Theory
    Theory of color vision that proposes visual neurons (or groups of neurons) are stimulated by light of one color and inhibited by light of another color
  103. Monochrome Color Blindness
    • Eyes contain no cones or cones that don't function
    • See everything in shades of gray
  104. Dichromatic Vision/Color Blindness
    • Eye contains one type of cone that doesn't function properly.
    • Can't see specific color set: red-green, blue-yellow
  105. Binocular Disparity
    The difference in the images between the two eyes, which is greater for objects that are close and smaller for distant objects
  106. Top-down Processing
    The use of pre-existing knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole
  107. Bottom-up Processing
    The analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception
  108. Absolute Threshold
    Least energy for correct stimulus detection 50% of the time (a bees wing falling on your face is the threshold for touch)
  109. Just-Noticeable Difference (JND)
    The smallest difference detectable 50% of the time(ex. Hearing and sight tests)
  110. Habituation
    • Brain stops attending to constant, unchanging informative (cognitive)
    • Example: A fan, drippy faucet
  111. Sensory Adaption
    • Sensory receptors less response to constant stimuli (biological)
    • Example: Your wallet, smell of house or perfume, dark theater
  112. Perpetual Expectancy
    The tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions