A&P Chapter 11

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A&P Chapter 11
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2010-06-20 21:47:43
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A&P Chapter 11
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  1. What are the two divisions of the nervous system?
    CNS & PNS
  2. What are the compnents of the CNS?
    brain and spinal cord
  3. What is the integrating and command center of the whole NS?
    CNS
  4. What NS responds to the outside (sensory)?
    PNS
  5. What does it mean to be touched/affected by a nerve?
    Innervated
  6. Most cells are only ____ cells away from a neuron.
    3-4
  7. Is afferent or efferent flowing into the integrating center?
    afferent
  8. Is afferent sensory or motor?
    sensory
  9. Is afferent or efferent flowing out of the integrating center to the organs?
    efferent
  10. Is efferent sensory or motor?
    motor
  11. What are some examples of effector organs?
    • skeletal muscles
    • glands
    • smooth muscle around arteries, veins, and digestive system
  12. Afferent is (motor/sensory) (output/input) and efferent is (motor/sensory) (output/input).
    • sensory, input
    • motor, output
  13. Which nervous system conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles?
    Somatic Nervous System
  14. Which nervous system is an involuntary system?
    ANS
  15. Does the Somatic/ANS begin at the Motor/Efferent division?
    NO! Begins at CNS.
  16. What are the 2 parts of the ANS?
    Sympathetic & Parasympathetic division
  17. What are the cells that regulate the chemical environment around neurons and exchange nutrients, waste, & O2 between neurons and capillaries?
    astrocytes
  18. Astrocytes make up ___% of the cells in the brain. The other ____% are _____.
    • 10%
    • 90% is neuroglia
  19. Astrocytes belong to _NS.
    CNS
  20. Only a few ____ touch the capillaries directly.
    neurons
  21. What is the blood brain barrier? Which cells contribute to it?
    The BBB helps prevent neurons from touching blood (which can be toxic to neurons). The astrocytes help contribute to it.
  22. Which cells line the ventricles containing CSF?
    Ependymal
  23. Ependymal cells belong to _NS.
    CNS
  24. Which cells are responsible for immunity and monitor health and defend neurons?
    Microglia cells
  25. Microglia cells belong to _NS.
    CNS
  26. These cells form the myelin sheaths of the CNS.
    Ogliodendrocytes
  27. These cells form the myelin sheaths of the PNS.
    Schwann cells
  28. These cells surround the neuron cells within the ganglia.
    Satellite cells.
  29. Satellite cells are part of the _NS.
    PNS
  30. Ganglia is a cluster of cell bodies in the _NS.
    PNS
  31. Nuclei is the cluster of cell bodies in the _NS.
    CNS
  32. A collection of axons in the PNS is a(n) ____.
    nerve
  33. A collection of axons in the CNS is the ____.
    tract
  34. What are the main messaging system?
    Nuerons
  35. Which cell is a connector from one body of stuff to another?
    astrocyte
  36. True or false. All neurons cannot touch blood.
    False
  37. Which cells are important for memory? What is special about them?
    Hippocamus. They can divide.
  38. What are the main components of neurons?
    • cell body
    • dendrites
    • axon
    • myelin sheath
    • axon hillock
    • node of ranvier
    • Schwann cells
  39. What are the main functions of a neuron?
    • -never really at rest
    • -mostly amitotic
    • -high metabolic rate requiring oxygen and glucose
  40. Action potentials and graded potentials are examples of _____ _____ and are in the ___ phase of mitosis.
    electrical impulses; G0
  41. What are the main receptive regions of the neuron?
    dedrites
  42. What is the biosynthetic center of the neuron?
    cell body
  43. What generates and conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body?
    axon
  44. What are some characteristics of myelin sheath?
    • whitish
    • fatty
    • segmented covering
    • protects
    • insulates
    • increases conductivity
  45. What is the trigger zone of the neuron?
    axon hillock
  46. What is the forward movement along the axon?
    anterograde transmission
  47. What is the movement of going back up the axon?
    retrograde transmission
  48. What is the difference between Schwann and oligodendrocytes?
    • Schwann = singular wrapped in sheath
    • oligodendrocytes = multiple wrapped in sheath
  49. What is the difference between a myelinated and unmyelinated axon?
    An unmyelinated axon is still wrapped but much looser, not as tight.
  50. What does wrapping help with?
    guiding the growth of the fibers
  51. What are the 3 structural classes of neurons?
    • multipolar
    • bipolar
    • unipolar
  52. Which of the 3 structural classes of neurons is the most common?
    Multipolar
  53. Which of the 3 structural classes of neurons lack a dendritic region?
    unipolar
  54. What are the 3 functional classes of neurons?
    • sensory (afferent)
    • motor (efferent)
    • interneurons
  55. Which of the 3 functional classes of neurons is the most common?
    Interneurons
  56. What is capable of conduction an action potential?
    axon
  57. Structure has to do with ______.
    polarity
  58. What are the 3 principles/characteristics of electricity?
    • voltage
    • resistance
    • current
  59. What is the flow of electrical charge from point to point?
    current
  60. What is the amount of difference (the space) between one membrane and another?
    voltage
  61. What is the hindrance of flow?
    resistance
  62. The potential difference is a measure of _____.
    polarity
  63. At RMP, the cell is _____ inside and ____ outside with a average voltage of _____.
    negative; positive; -70mV
  64. A leaky membrane ion channel is always ___.
    open
  65. The membrane ion channel is 75% more leaky to ___ than ___.
    K; Na
  66. A gated membrane ion channel is a proetin gate that changes ___ or ___ in response to a certain stimulus.
    shape; opens
  67. What are the 3 types of gating?
    • mechanical
    • ligand
    • voltage
  68. All cells are ____ to some degree.
    polarized
  69. The membrane is _____ _____ to solutes.
    selectively permeable
  70. A voltage of -70 means the cell is negative ____ of the membrane.
    inside
  71. A chemical/ligand channel is closed until when?
    Until a chemical binds to it.
  72. A voltage membrane is closed until when?
    Until the voltage inside/outside of the membrane changes.
  73. Changing from -70 is a means of ______.
    communication
  74. The interior of the cell going from -70 to -60 is ______.
    depolarization
  75. The interior of the cell going from -70 to -80 is _____.
    hyperpolarization
  76. Graded potentials are short-lived, ____ changes in membrane potentials.
    local
  77. Where do these differences in voltage take place?
    right along the membrane
  78. In the K/Na pump, ___ K go ___ and ___ Na go ___.
    3 out; 2 in
  79. More ___ can leak out than ___ can leak in.
    K; Na
  80. What causes the Na to flow fast into the cell?
    electrical & mechanical gradient
  81. At RMP there is a(n) _____ amount of K going in and K going out.
    equal
  82. K gets sucked out because ____.
    There is all the positive Na going in.
  83. Depolarization shows a (rise/drop) in the curve and is _PSP.
    rise; EPSP
  84. Hyperpolarization shows a (rise/drop) in the curve and is _PSP.
    drop; IPSP
  85. Will a weak graded potential still lead to an action potential?
    NO
  86. What is graded potential?
    Diffusion of an ion down inside of the membrane.
  87. With graded potential, what is the "motion" of the ion?
    It rushes in and spreads out along inside.
  88. The membrane becomes positive inside once ___.
    enough of the positive ions spread within
  89. Graded potential happens mostly on ____.
    dendrites
  90. If a graded potential happens on the axon, it leads to ____. When?
    an action potential; immediately
  91. _______ is the principle way neurons communicate.
    action potential
  92. In ____, there is a(n) _____ in Na permeability, a(n) _____ in Na permeability, and then a(n) _____ in K permeability.
    generation; increase; decrease; increase
  93. What is it when the depolarization of an area leads to the depolarization of the forward adjacent area?
    propagation (transmission)
  94. _____ is the outside part of the Schwann cell. It is made of ___.
    Neurolemma; fat
  95. What are the 3 properties of a neuron?
    • excitability
    • conductive
    • secretion
  96. What do neurons secrete?
    neurotransmitters
  97. There is a(n) ____ increase from rest to activity for muscle cells and a(n) ____ increase from rest to activity for neurons.
    30-40x; 50%
  98. What restores the RMP after it has been depolarized?
    repolarization
  99. If the membrane voltage does not reach ___, then no action potential occurs.
    -55mV
  100. What is the critical minimum for depolarization?
    -55
  101. Action potentials are a(n) _____ phenomenon.
    all-or-nothing
  102. The slight overshoot once the K channels are open and Nc channels close is called _____.
    hyperpolarization
  103. The stimulus intensity is encoded in the _____ of action potentials.
    frequency
  104. What is the name of the period of time required so that a neuron can generate another action potential?
    refractory period
  105. What are the 4 phases of voltage gated?
    • 1. all gates are closed
    • 2. Na gates open
    • 3. Na gates start to close, K gates start to open
    • 4. Na gates are closed, K gates are open; slight hyperpolarization
  106. In a voltage gated channel, what happens when the threshold (-55mV) is reached?
    Na gates open and Na starts to enter
  107. What happens when the Na channels are closing?
    K channels are opening and K is leaving the cell
  108. Will the gates respond at -25mV?
    yes (depolarization) The gates will open
  109. In the fourth stage of voltage gated channels, what is the slight overshoot?
    hyperpolarization
  110. The period of a lack of activity occurs for how long? What is the length traveled?
    1-2 minutes; 1 mm of axon length
  111. What is the absolute refractory period?
    • The period from the opening of Na channels until they begin to reset to original state.
    • Na is open and Na is entering.
    • Follows stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked.
    • Absolutely nothing can happen!
  112. What is the relative refractory period?
    • Follows absolute refractory period.
    • Interval when a threshold for action potential stimulation is elevated.
    • Na has returned to resting state, some K is still open (and K is still leaving), repolarization is occurring.
  113. What are the 2 refractory periods (in order)?
    absolute & relative
  114. What are the factors that affect conduction velocity? How so?
    • Size (the bigger the axon, the more conductive)
    • Myelination (the more myelinated, the more conductive)
  115. What are the 2 methods of conduction?
    continuous conduction & saltatory conduction
  116. What is continuous conduction? Is it for myelinated or unmyelinated fibers?
    • Unmyelinated.
    • Threshold voltage in trigger zone begins impulse.
    • Chain reaction (walking slowly and deliberately) of opening of Na channels...adjacent to adjacent to adjacent.
  117. How fast does continuous (impulse) conduction occur?
    2 m/s
  118. What is saltatory conduction? Is it for myelinated or unmyelinated fibers?
    • Myelinated.
    • Skipping parts to go faster (walking normally).
    • Skipping from node to node (excessive channels at nodes of ranvier).
  119. How fast does saltatory conduction occur?
    120 m/s
  120. Is pain transmission happens down a myelinated or unmyelinated axon?
    unmyelinated (takes a while for the pain to register)
  121. Why do large fibers have a higher velocity of nerve signal?
    More surface area for signals.
  122. Small, unmyelinated fibers travel at what speed?
    0.5 - 2 m/s
  123. Small, myelinated fibers travel at what speed?
    3 - 15 m/s
  124. Large, myelinated fibers travel at what speed?
    up to 120 m/s
  125. You pull your hand away from a hot stove even before the pain sets in. This is an example of...
    myelinated fibers
  126. A junction that mediates information transfer between neurons or between a neuron and an effector cell.
    Synapse
  127. What is toward (before) the synapse?
    Presynaptic
  128. What is away from (after) the synapse?
    Postsynaptic
  129. What have neurons that are electrically coupled via protein channels and allow direct exchange of ions from cell to cell (e.g from one muscle cell to another)?
    Electrical synapses
  130. Specialized for release and reception of chemical neurotransmitters
    chemical synapses
  131. What are the 3 ways in which neurotransmitter effects are terminated?
    • degradation
    • reuptake
    • diffusion
  132. Prozac is an example of _____ (terminated neurotransmitter effect)
    reuptake
  133. ______ is the termination of neurotransmitters by enzymes; postsynaptic cell or within the synaptic cleft
    degradation
  134. ______ is the termination of neurotransmitters by astrocytes or the presynaptic cell
    reuptake
  135. ______ is the termination of neurotransmitters away from the synapse
    diffusion
  136. What are the 3 synaptic regions?
    • axosomatic (axon-body)
    • axodendritic (avon-dendrite)
    • axoaxonic (axon-axon)
  137. ____ junctions are important for electrical synapses.
    gap
  138. These 2 muscle types are involved in electrical synapse.
    smooth & cardiac
  139. What mediate, modulate, and alter graded potentials on the postsynaptic cell? They can be ______ or _____.
    neurotransmitters; excitatory or inhibitory
  140. What are the two types of summation be the postsynaptic neuron?
    temporal and spatial
  141. Which summation is the response to successive releases of NT?
    temporal sumamtion
  142. Which summation is the postsynaptic cell stimulated at the same time by multiple terminals?
    spatial summation
  143. When a presynaptic cell is stimulated repeatedly or continuously, enhancing the release of NT.
    synaptic potentiation

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