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- Heart was the center of intellect.
- Brain was a radiator for cooling the blood.
Brain was the center of intellect.
- Hippocratic Doctine.
- Anatomical brain dissections.
- Thought movements and sensations were carried by fluids through ventricles.
Experiment and observations of electricity.
- Muscles can be made to twitch if nerves are electrically stimulated.
Types of cells in CNS:
- 4)Ependymal cells
- Excitable cells that process and transmit info.
- Elemental processing unit of the nervous system.
- -Extracellular ion balance
- -transport and processing of some NTs
- -endothelial cells of blood-brain barrier
- -synaptic transmission
- -produce fatty insulating material that aids in propagation of neural impulses (fast)
- -autoimmune disease interfere
Active immune response system of the brain and spinal cord.
- -Line ventricles and tissue space.
- -Manufacture and circulate CSF.
Basic neuron types:
- -Bipolar (Interneuron)
- -Unipolar (Sensory Neuron)
- -Multipolar (Motor Neuron)
- -Pyramidal Cell
- -Contain only one dendrite and axon directly opposite to one another.
- -Separated by soma.
- -Dendrite and axon emerge from the same process.
- -Axon has 2 processes: peripheral and Central
- -contain 1 axon and multiple dendrites.
- -Specialized multipolar cell
- -motor cortex, hippocampus
cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord, brainstem
connects periphery with brain and spinal cord
Somatic nervous system
voluntary control of muscle
Autonomic Nervous System
- -Involuntary functions
- -smooth muscle
- -cardiac muscle
- -parasympathetic, sympathetic and enteric systems
Enteric Nervous System
- Embedded in lining of GI
- Subdivision of PNS
- -controls motility and secretion in the gut
- -can operate autonomously
- -normally operates via sympathetic and parasympathetic control
- -motor functions
- -long-term memory
- -higher functions
- -sexual behaviour
-sensory integration from different modalities
- -motor control
- -timing of reflexes
- -learning of motor skills
- -cardiovascular system control
- -respiratory control
- -pain sensitivity control
- (most cranial nerves)
motor, eye movement, pupilliary constriction
motor, eye movement
motor/sensory, sensory from face and head, motor to muscles of mastication
motor, eye movement
sensory/motor, motor muscles to face and some glands, sensory taste
Sensory: hearing, balance
- motor: muscles of pharynx, innervation of glands
- sensory: taste
Motor to muscles of larynx and pharynx, some glands, parasympathetic control of viscera
Spinal accessory nerve
motor to muscles of neck
- memory, emotion, arousal, fear
- -amygdala: lower more primitive area, fear and anxiety
- -anterior thalmus
- -limbic cortex
- sexual function, thirst, food, temp. regulation, hormonal regulation
- -central ganglia of brain
- -sensory input (relay to brainstem, brain)
- -descending consolidation and fine motor output to muscles of neck, fore and hindlimbs
- -coordinates certain reflexes, ANS, rhythmic movements (scratching, walking)
- -clusters of neurons located within CNS
- -caudate nucleus helps us walk
- -clusters of cells located outside CNS
- -eg. dorsal root ganglia
cerebellum (develops last), pons
cerebrum, cerebral cortex