Physiology Lecture 4

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  1. Aristotle believed:
    • Heart was the center of intellect.¬†
    • Brain was a radiator for cooling the blood.
  2. Hippocrates believed:
    Brain was the center of intellect.
  3. Galen:
    • Hippocratic Doctine.
    • Anatomical brain dissections.
    • Thought movements and sensations were carried by fluids through ventricles.
  4. Benjamin Franklin
    Experiment and observations of electricity.
  5. Luigi Galvani
    • 1800s.
    • Muscles can be made to twitch if nerves are electrically stimulated.
  6. Types of cells in CNS:
    • 1)Astrocytes
    • 2)Oligodendrocytes
    • 3)Microglia
    • 4)Ependymal cells
  7. Neurons
    • Excitable cells that process and transmit info.
    • Elemental processing unit of the nervous system.
  8. Astrocytes
    • -Extracellular ion balance
    • -transport and processing of some NTs
    • -signaling¬†
    • -endothelial cells of blood-brain barrier
    • -synaptic transmission
  9. Oligodendrocytes
    • -produce fatty insulating material that aids in propagation of neural impulses (fast)
    • -autoimmune disease interfere
  10. Microglia
    Active immune response system of the brain and spinal cord.
  11. Ependymal Cells
    • -Line ventricles and tissue space.
    • -Manufacture and circulate CSF.
  12. Basic neuron types:
    • -Bipolar (Interneuron)
    • -Unipolar (Sensory Neuron)
    • -Multipolar (Motor Neuron)
    • -Pyramidal Cell
  13. Bipolar Cells
    • -Contain only one dendrite and axon directly opposite to one another.
    • -Separated by soma.
  14. Unipolar Cells
    • -Dendrite and axon emerge from the same process.
    • -Axon has 2 processes: peripheral and Central
  15. Multipolar
    • -contain 1 axon and multiple dendrites.
    • -motorneurons
  16. Pyramidal Cell
    • -Specialized multipolar cell
    • -motor cortex, hippocampus
  17. CNS
    cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord, brainstem
  18. PNS
    connects periphery with brain and spinal cord
  19. Somatic nervous system
    voluntary control of muscle
  20. Autonomic Nervous System
    • -Involuntary functions
    • -smooth muscle
    • -cardiac muscle
    • -glands
    • -parasympathetic, sympathetic and enteric systems
  21. Enteric Nervous System
    • Embedded in lining of GI
    • -Myenteric
    • -Submucousal
    • Subdivision of PNS
    • -controls motility and secretion in the gut
    • -can operate autonomously
    • -normally operates via sympathetic and parasympathetic control
  22. Frontal Lobe
    • -motor functions
    • -planning
    • -long-term memory
    • -higher functions
  23. Temporal lobe
    • -auditory
    • -memory
    • -sexual behaviour
  24. Occipital lobe
  25. Parietal lobe
    -sensory integration from different modalities
  26. cerebellum
    • -motor control
    • -timing of reflexes
    • -learning of motor skills
    • -coordination
  27. Brainstem
    • -cardiovascular system control
    • -respiratory control
    • -pain sensitivity control
    • -alertness
    • (most cranial nerves)
  28. Olfactory nerve
    sensory, smell
  29. Optic nerve
    sensory, vision
  30. occulomotor nerve
    motor, eye movement, pupilliary constriction
  31. Trochlear nerve
    motor, eye movement
  32. Trigeminal nerve
    motor/sensory, sensory from face and head, motor to muscles of mastication
  33. Abducens nerve
    motor, eye movement
  34. Facial nerve
    sensory/motor, motor muscles to face and some glands, sensory taste
  35. Vestibulocochlear
    Sensory: hearing, balance
  36. Glossopharyngeal nerve
    • motor: muscles of pharynx, innervation of glands
    • sensory: taste
  37. Vagus nerve
    Motor to muscles of larynx and pharynx, some glands, parasympathetic control of viscera
  38. Spinal accessory nerve
    motor to muscles of neck
  39. Limbic system
    • memory, emotion, arousal, fear
    • -hippocampus
    • -amygdala: lower more primitive area, fear and anxiety
    • -anterior thalmus
    • -limbic cortex
  40. Hypothalmus
    • sexual function, thirst, food, temp. regulation, hormonal regulation
    • -central ganglia of brain
  41. Spinal Cord
    • -sensory input (relay to brainstem, brain)
    • -descending consolidation and fine motor output to muscles of neck, fore and hindlimbs
    • -coordinates certain reflexes, ANS, rhythmic movements (scratching, walking)
  42. Nuclei
    • -clusters of neurons located within CNS
    • -caudate nucleus helps us walk
  43. Ganglia
    • -clusters of cells located outside CNS
    • -eg. dorsal root ganglia
  44. Prosencephalon
  45. Mesencephalon
  46. Rhombencephalon
  47. Metencephalon
    cerebellum (develops last), pons
  48. Diancephalon
    thalmus, hypothalmus
  49. Telencephalon
    cerebrum, cerebral cortex

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Physiology Lecture 4
2013-10-01 03:00:27

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